University of Auckland referencing style


  Reference list format | Footnote format | Subsequent references | Using Univeristy of Auckland Style | Acknowledgements | Academic integrity and referencing


Reference list format

A complete reference list should be included at the end of your assignment. This should include all works that have been cited. The format used in the reference list or bibliography varies depending upon the type of source being referred to. Entries should be ordered alphabetically, according to authors' last names.

Books

Surname, First name(s). Title. Place of Publication, Publisher, Date.

Example:

Comfort, Alan D. A Good Age. London, Mitchell Beazley, 1997.

Book chapters

Author's Surname, First name(s). 'Title', in Editor's Full Name (ed.), Book title. Place of Publication, Publisher, Date.

Example:

Ortiz, Simon. 'The Language We Speak', In Nancy Buffington (ed.), Living Languages: Contexts for Reading and Writing.Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice Hall, 1997.

Journal articles

Surname, First name(s). 'Title', Journal title, v.Volume number, Date.

Example:

Wharton, N. 'Health and Safety in Outdoor Activity Centres'. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, v.12, 1996.

Online resources

Surname, First name(s). 'Title'. Site. access date, URL.

Example:

Sopensky, E. 'Ice rink becomes hot business'. Austin Business Journal. 28 January 2004, http://www.bizjournals.com/austin/stories/2002/10/14/smallb1.html.


Footnote formats for first references

Place the text of a footnote on the same page as the corresponding superscript numeral. First references are detailed and should be prefaced by the corresponding number that appears within the text. The relevant page number should be included (where applicable) at the end of the citation. Footnotes should be separated from the text by a line.

Various formats should be used depending upon the type of source. Some examples are shown below.

Books

Footnote number. Author's full name, Title. Place of Publication, Publisher, Date, pp.Page number.

Example 1: Book (Up to Two Authors):

4. Donald N. McCloskey, Enterprise and Trade in Victorian Britain: Essays in Historical Economics. London, George Allen and Unwin, 1981, pp.54.

Example 2: Book (More than Two Authors):

34. Donald A. Lloyd et al. American English and Its Cultural Setting. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1956, pp.12.

Book chapters

Footnote number. Author's full name, 'Title', in Editors Full Name (ed.), Book title. Place of Publication, Publisher, Date, pp.Page Number.

Example:

12. Simon F. Ortiz. 'The Language We Speak', in Nancy Buffington, Marvin Diogenes, and Clyde Moneyhun (eds.), Living Languages: Contexts for Reading and Writing. Upper Saddle River, N.J, Prentice Hall, 1997, pp.42.

Journal articles

Footnote Number. Author's full name, 'Title', Journal Title, v.Volume Number no.Issue Number, Date, pp.Page numbers.

Example:

1. Louise M. Hulme, 'The Transactional Theory: Against Dualisms', College English, v.54, no.2, 1993, pp.380-393.


Online resources

Footnote Number. Author's full name, 'title' organisation/publisher/producer, access date, URL.

Example:

1. Brendan P. Kehoe, 'Zen and the Art of the Internet' Network Basics, January 4 1992, http://www.cs.indiana.edu/docproject/zen/zen-1.0_toc.html.


Footnote formats for subsequent references

After a detailed footnote for a source has been provided, subsequent footnotes need to include only the author's name and the page number. When a note refers to the source in the immediately preceding note, the term Ibid. can be used.

Example:

First Reference: 34. Donald A. Lloyd et al. American English and Its Cultural Setting. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1956, pp.12.

Referring to the Immediately Preceding Reference: 35. Ibid., 175.

Subsequent References: 42. Lloyd, 25.


Using University of Auckland style

A superscript number is inserted after the sentence containing the quotation or idea you wish to reference. Mark the numbers continuously throughout the essay. Do not start renumbering on each page. A footnote containing all necessary citation information is placed at the bottom of the page on which the reference occurs. Footnotes should be clearly numbered and the number should correspond to the superscript numeral to which it refers. If possible, use the footnote or endnote function of your software.

Superscript numbers in text

  • This argument was first put forward in the early 19th century.
  • The argument was first put forward by Hulme.
  • Hulme stated that this argument was first propounded 'early in the 19th century'.1

Need more information?

For a complete referencing guide see the Oxford Style Manual.

  • Oxford Style Manual Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003

Acknowledgements

This source was used in the compilation of this page:

  • Lester, JD., Lester, JD jr. The Essential Guide: Research Writing Across the Disciplines. New York, Longman, 2002.

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