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Tirohanga Māori

A Bibliography of Māori Perspectives


  1. Introduction
  2. How to find books using Library Search
  3. Journal articles
    Index New Zealand
    Index to New Zeland Periodicals
    Journal of the Polynesian Society and Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute
  4. Key books and articles on contemporary Māori society
    Contemporary Māori society
  5. Key books and articles on traditional Māori society
    Cosmology and cosmogony
    Law and government
    Whānau, hapū and iwi
    First hand accounts of early explorers, missionaries and traders

1. Introduction

This bibliography has been compiled to provide a list of references for the library user who is looking for information on Māori attitudes, beliefs, views and conceptions. Inevitably it broadens out to include a wider perspective of Māori culture because for many subjects the only available material has not been written with these concerns in mind. Earlier anthropologists were more interested in material culture and what they called rites and customs. It is only in more recent times that the focus has moved towards an exploration of underlying viewpoints and ways of conceiving the world.

An attempt has been made to separate resources relating to traditional (pre-European) Māori culture from books about contemporary Māori culture. In the case of traditional Māori culture we are attempting to reconstruct a long-distant past, and in cases where there has been no research on a particular aspect of traditional Māori society the only way to obtain information is by sifting through the written record left by the earliest visitors and interpreting it in the light of the information in later Māori sources, a very time-consuming process. For instance, an investigation of traditional Māori attitudes to, say, clothing, would require an initial investigation of such indexes and bibliographies as exist (Index New Zealand, the University of Waikato Māori Bibliography, Taylor's Bibliography, the Journal of the Polynesian Society (JPS) and the Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute (TNZI) - see below for more details - and then a look at anthropological sources (Elsdon Best, Makereti), compendiums of traditional Māori knowledge such as Tikao talks and an investigation of travellers' and explorers' accounts (concentrating on those with indexes initially) for any references to kinds of clothing (eg, korowai), probably under a more general heading such as clothing or the body.

Investigation of modern Māori attitudes and beliefs is more straightforward. A number of books and articles have been written in recent years to explain Māori spiritual and cultural concepts and a selection is listed in this pamphlet. Three areas which have received particular attention in the last decade are resource management, health and education. Separate sections have been devoted to these issues. A number of traditional anthropological area studies have also been undertaken over the last decades (see Hohepa, Beaglehole, Metge and Ritchie). Other writers have investigated particular aspects of Māori culture such as the hui (see Salmond). There is not a lot of published material from opinion polls but the 1988 Royal Commission of Social Policy did undertake some interesting work in this area. See under Contemporary Māori Society - General.

Many of the sources referenced in this guide have been written by Pakeha and reflect Pakeha perspectives of Māori culture.

2. How to find books Top of page

Using Library SearchTop of page

Many of the books held in the University of Auckland Library can be found using Library Search, the online catalogue.

You can locate information on Māori perspectives by typing the following phrases into the Search Box on Library Search and refine your results by selecting a Subject Heading:

Maori New Zealand people attitudes
Maori New Zealand people religion
Maori New Zealand people social life and customs
Maori new zealand people rites and ceremonies

Start with keyword searches and modify them in light of the subject headings you find on the records retrieved. Then make a subject search under these headings.

3. Journal articles Top of page

Individual articles in journals and newspapers are not listed separately on Library Search, the online catalogue. You must search various special indexes or look at bibliographies in other published works on the subject. The sources listed below are the most useful for finding sources in this field.

Index New Zealand Top of page

1. Look for recent journal and newspaper articles in Index New Zealand (INNZ).
2. All searches are keyword searches which search all the words of the record unless the computer is instructed to search only one particular field. The question mark is the truncation symbol.
3. Try searches with Maori attitudes, eg, Maori attitudes health
4. Add the words book reviews to your search to locate book reviews.
5. Other words which can be added to Maori attitudes are:
nursing, women, sex, cannibalism, education, Waitangi, police, counselling, adoption, discrimination, psychology, photography, archaeology, land, crime, leisure, pregnancy, language, mining, prostitution, mental illness, water resources, land resources, disabled, family, environment, religion, racial discrimination, law

If you don’t get enough hits try leaving out the word attitudes. If you get too many hits add to your typed search:
views, perceptions, values, concepts, beliefs, customs

Some items retrieved do not have the subject heading (or descriptor) attitudes. You may have to use all or some of the words listed above instead of the word attitudes.

Index to New Zealand periodicals 1941-1986 Top of page

The precursor of INNZ, the Index to New Zealand periodicals, indexes only journals, including the Māori Affairs Department publication, Te Ao hou. It covers the years 1941-1986.

Bibliographies Top of page

The book listed below is the most important general bibliography.

Taylor, C.R.H. A bibliography of publications on the New Zealand Māori and the Moriori of the Chatham Islands. 1972.
It covers books and journal articles published prior to 1970. It is classified by subject and includes sections on ethnology, physical and mental characteristics, tribal and community organization, family organization, birth and death customs, religion, magic and sorcery. Entries are not annotated and there is no access by iwi or region.

Bibliographies in other books may also prove useful. Books with bibliographies can be found by adding the word bibliography to a search on Library Search eg, Maori education bibliography.

Journal of the Polynesian Society and Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand InstituteTop of page

Nineteenth and early twentieth Century articles on Māori topics were generally published in the Journal of the Polynesian Society (JPS) or the Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute (TNZI) which have their own indexes as well as being indexed by Taylor. The JPS continues to publish material in this field.

Journal of the Polynesian Society. 1892-
Indexed to 1970 by Taylor bibliography (see previous) but also has its own centennial index for the years 1892-1992. The JPS has published a large number of articles on various facets of Māoritanga over the years. Contributors included Māori scholars from various iwi.

Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. 1868-
Before the JPS was published this was the journal for scholarly articles about Māori. There are several indexes covering different periods which are shelved with the volumes. Subject approach is under the general heading "Papers - Anthropology and Philology". Also indexed by Taylor and Fletcher.

4. Key books and articles on Māori views and attitudes Top of page

This section of the guide has been divided into two parts, dealing with contemporary and traditional Māori society. Naturally there is considerable overlap and in some cases it will be advisable to look at both sections. It gives a selection of the most important works only and must be considered as a starting point. To find more material use:

Library Search and Index New Zealand. Various searches are suggested under each sub-heading.

Environment Top of page

Search Library Search using the following keyword searches:

Maori resource management
Maori conservation
Maori environmental
Maori natural resources

Search for journal articles on Index New Zealand (INNZ) under

Maori resource management
Maori environmental
Maori conservation
Maori natural resources
Maori water resources
Maori land resources

James, Bev. The Māori relationship with the environment. 1993
17 pages.

Kaitiakitanga: A definitive introduction to the holistic world-view of the Māori. 1992.

McCan, Cindy. Water: Towards a bicultural perspective. 1990.

New Zealand. Royal Commission on Social Policy. The April report. 1988
See Vol.4, pp.327-383

Ngā kai o te moana kaupapa tiakina: Customary fisheries : philosophy and practices, legislation and change. 1993.

Tomas, Violet Cecelia. Recognition of Māori interests and values in resource management laws. 1990.

Wāhi tapu: Protection of Māori sacred sites. 1991
An introduction to environment and resource management planning.

Waiora, waimāori, waimate, waitai: Māori perceptions of water and the environment. 1984.

Yoon, H.K. Māori mind, Māori land: Essays on the cultural geography of the Māori people from an outsider's perspective. 1986
Attitudes to land, the environment, pēpeha of iwi identity, place names, the marae, church, urupā complex.

Contemporary Māori society Top of page

Te Ao hurihuri: Aspects of Māoritanga. 1975
Includes essays on marae kawa, leadership, land, death, spiritual concepts, and being Māori by prominent Māori figures.

Barlow, Cleve. Tikanga whakaaro: Key concepts in Māori culture. 1991.
70 essays in Māori and English about the meaning of concepts such as mana, ihi, kotahitanga, aituā, aroha, whakapapa and whaikörero. Mainly traditional concepts.

Customary concepts of the Māori: A source book for Māori Studies students. 1984.
A collection of essays compiled by Sid Mead and J. Fleras of Victoria University. Covers muru, rāhui, utu, tapu, whakanoa, hapa, whati, ihi, wehi and wana.

Dansey, Harry. Māori custom today. 1978.
Includes information on contemporary attitudes to tapu, marae kawa, personal names and hui.

He matapuna: A source: some Māori perspectives. 1979
A collection of essays by prominent Māori figures, published by the Planning Council, which reflect on life experiences, Māoritanga and current Māori issues.

Metge, Joan. The Māori of New Zealand: Rautahi. 1976.
Includes a survey of the concepts of tapu, noa, aituā, tika, mana, whakamā, whakaiti, whakahihi, aroha, utu.

New Zealand. Royal Commission on Social Policy. The April report. 1985
Volume 1 contains results of a large scale survey of attitudes and values about health, housing, education, crime and unemployment with separate figures for Māori responses. There is also a special Māori section with questions on Māori issues.

Patterson, John. Exploring Māori values. 1992.

Rata, Elizabeth Mary. Global capitalism and the revival of ethnic traditionalism in New Zealand: The emergence of tribal-capitalism. Thesis (PhD--Education)--University of Auckland, 1996.
Analyses recent developments in Māoridom, including kura kaupapa Māori.

Salmond, Anne. Hui: A study of Māori ceremonial gatherings. 2nd ed. 1976.

Shirres, Michael P. Te tangata: The human person. 1997
Religion and spirituality including notes on tapu and mana.

Stirling, Eruera K.W. Eruera: The teachings of a Māori elder. 1980.
As told to Anne Salmond by Whānau-ā-Apanui elder, Eruera Stirling. In pp.205-244 he reflects on the modern world. Most of the book is devoted to the story of his life.

Tīhē mauriora: Aspects of Māoritanga. 1978
Includes essays about attitudes to documents, myth and traditions, Kīngitanga, Rātana, Ringatū, marae kawa and biculturalism.

Walker, R.J. Ngā pepa a Ranginui. 1996
A selection of published magazine articles, seminars and papers. Sections include Being Māori, The meeting house, Waitangi and tino rangatiratanga, Education, Science, intellectual property and cultural safety and Immigration.

Death Top of page

Books are indexed on Library Search under the subject headings

Maori (New Zealand people) death
Maori (New Zealand people) funeral customs and rites

Search for articles on Index New Zealand (INNZ) under

Maori death

Beaglehole, Ernest. ‘Contemporary Māori death customs’ in Journal of the Polynesian Society v.54, pp.91-116.

Oppenheim, R.S. Māori death customs. 1973

Tangihanga. 1988

Voykovic, Anthony A. Ngā roimata o Hinenui-te-Pō: Death in Māori life. Thesis (MA)--University of Otago, 1981.

See also Te Ao hurihuri in the general list.

Education Top of page

Use Library Search with the following keywords:

Maori education
multicultural education New Zealand
Maori education attitudes
indigenous peoples education
Maori education bibliography

Search for journal articles on Index New Zealand (INNZ) under

Maori education
Maori education attitudes
education multicultural Maori
kohanga reo
kura kaupapa Maori

A large number of studies and reports have been written in this area and the following items are only a selection.

Hohepa, Margie Kahukura. Preferred pedagogies and language interactions in Te Kohanga Reo. 1993.

Irwin, Kathie. Māori research methods and processes: Aan exploration in Sites, No.28, pp.25-43 (Autumn 1994)

Māori and Pacific Island demand for educational services: Māori Auckland : research report. 1995.

Mead, Linda Tuhiwai Te Rina. Ngā aho o te kākahu mātauranga: The multiple layers of struggle by Māori in education. Thesis (PhD--Education)--University of Auckland, 1996.

New Zealand. Royal Commission on Social Policy. The April report. 1988
See Vol. 3 for "Fairness in Māori education" and Vol 4 for "Māori education for a just society"

Ngā kete wānanga: Te kete tuarua. 1986

Pere, Rangimarie. Ako: Concepts and learning in the Māori tradition. 1994

Rzoska, Krystyna M. Ward, Colleen. The effects of cooperative and competitive learning methods on the mathematics achievement, attitudes towards school, self-concepts and friendship choices of Māri, Pākeha and Samoan children in New Zealand journal of Psychology, Vol.20, no.1, pp.17-24, (June, 1991)

Simon, Judith A. The place of schooling in Māori-Pākeha relations. 1990

Survey of demand for bilingual and immersion education education in Māori: A report to the Ministry of Education. 1992

Health Top of page

Use Library Search with the following keyword searches:

Maori health medical anthropology
(for more general material)

Search for journal articles on Index New Zealand (INNZ) under

Maori and health

Best Elsdon. ‘Māori medical lore’ in Journal of the Polynesian Society, v.13, pp.213-237 and v.14, pp.1-23

Buck, Peter H. Medicine amongst the Maoris in ancient and modern times. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of New Zealand, 1910.

Dow, Derek A. Annotated bibliography for the history of medicine & health in New Zealand. 1994

Durie, Mason. ‘A Māori perspective of health’ in Social science magazine, v.20, no.5, 1985,pp.483-6

Encounters with biomedicine: Case studies in medical anthropology. 1987

Imperial medicine and indigenous societies, 1988

Lange, R.T. ‘The tohunga and the Government in the twentieth century’ in University of Auckland Historical Society. Annual. 1968, pp.12-38
Covers Tohunga Suppression Act

Lloyd, G.E.R. Demystifying mentalities. 1990

Hui whakaoranga: Māori health planning workshop. 1984

Prichard, Arapera. Rural Māori women’s health practices: A case study of three generations in Omāhu, Hawkes Bay. Thesis (MA--Anthropology)--University of Auckland, 1992.

Ramsden, Irihapeti. Kawa whakaruruhau: Cultural safety in nursing education in Aotearoa (New Zealand) in Nursing praxis in New Zealand , v.8, no.3, pp.4-10 (Nov. 1993)

Rolleston, Sam. Kohikohitanga: A Māori health knowledge base. 1989.
Includes chapters about attitudes and views with regard to research, tangihanga, tohunga.

Simpson, A.I.F. An assessment of health in the prehistoric inhabitants of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Thesis (B. Med. Sc.)--University of Otago, 1979.

Smith, Graham H. The development of kaupapa Māori: Theory and praxis. Thesis (PhD--Education)--University of Auckland, 1997.

Tipene-Leach, David. ‘Māoris: Our feelings about the medical profession’ in Primary health care and the community. 1981

Wood, Pamela J. Cultural safety: A framework for changing attitudes in Nursing praxis in New Zealand. Vol.8, no.1, pp.4-15 (March 1993)

History Top of page

Search Library Search with the following keywords:

Maori history

Search for journal articles on Index New Zealand (INNZ) under:

Maori historiography

Binney, Judith. Māori oral narratives, Pakeha written texts - two forms of telling history in New Zealand journal of history Vol.21, no.1 pp.16-28 (April 1987)

Broughton, Ruka. Ngaa mahi whakaari a Titokowaru in Phillips, Jock (ed.) Biography in New Zealand. 1985

Mead, S.M. Landmarks, bridges and visions: Aspects of Māori culture. 1997.

O’Regan, Tipene. Old myths and new politics: Some contemporary uses of traditional history in New Zealand journal of history, Vol.26, no.1, pp.5-27 (April 1992)
Looks at issues relating to the Ngai Tahu claim, difficulties with oral tradition and the use and misuse of evidence.

Pere, Joseph Hetekia Te Kani. Hitori Māori in The future of the past: Themes in New Zealand history. 1991.

Royal, Charles. Te haurapa: An introduction to researching tribal histories and traditions. 1992.

Smit, Grace. Mana Māori: Questions of authority on the East Coast during the nineteenth Century. Thesis (MA--History)--University of Auckland, 1997.

Soutar, Monty. Tribal history in New Zealand in Oral history in New Zealand , No.6, pp.29-40 (i994)
Looks at two early histories of Ngati Porou in the context of difficulties in reconciling academic and tribal history.

Ward, Alan. Historical method and Waitangi Tribunal claims in Fairburn, Miles and Bill Oliver (eds.) The certainty of doubt. 1996

Work in flux. 1995
A collection of essays on indigenous and Western history in Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific. Sections include Scholarship and indigenous knowledge, Identity politics and Indigenous people and the academy.

Psychology Top of page

Use Library Search with the following keywords:

Maori New Zealand people psychology

Search for journal articles on Index New Zealand (INNZ) under

Maori psychology

McFarlane-Nathan, Garry Huingahau. Cultural bias in neuropsychological assessment. Thesis (MA--Psychology)--University of Auckland, 1992.

Metge, Joan. In and out of touch: Wwhakamā in a cross-cultural context. 1986

Metge, Joan. New growth from old: The whānau in the modern world. 1995

One of the boys?: Changing views of masculinity in New Zealand. 1988
Includes autiobiographical essays by Ranginui Walker and Sir James Henare.

Ritchie, James. Basic personality in Rākau. 1956

Ritchie, James. The making of a Māori. 1963

Ritchie, James. E tipu e rea: Polynesian socialization and psychological development. 1985

Ritchie, Jane. Childhood in Rākau. 1956

Stewart, Tereki R. Ka pū te ruha, ka hao te rangatahi: Contributions to an indigenous psychology in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Thesis (MA--Psychology)--University of Auckland, 1995.

Waipara-Panapa, Aroha L. Body and soul: A socio-cultural analysis of body image in Aotearoa. Thesis (MSc--Psychology)--University of Auckland, 1995.

Women Top of page

Use Library Searchwith the following keywords:

Māori women

Search for journal articles on Index New Zealand (INNZ) under

Maori women

Maori women research attitudes

or replace the word attitudes in the search above with either


Edwards, Mihi. Mihipeka: Time of turmoil: Ngā wā raruraru. 1992
Autiobiography concentrating on the 1940’s and 50’s.

Mana wahine: Women who show the way. 1994
24 well-known Māori women of all ages reflect on their backgrounds, education, careers and experiences and give their opinions on various issues.

Paraha, Glynnis. He pounamu kakano rua: Construction of Māori women: a visual discourse. Thesis (MA--Education)--University of Auckland, 1992.

Ralston, Caroline. Māori women and politics of tradition: what roles and power did, do and should Māori women exercise’ in Contemporary Pacific, v.5, no.1, pp.223-44, 1993.

Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia. Mana wahine Māori: Selected writings on Māori women’s art, culture and politics. 1991

Toi wahine: The worlds of Māori women. 1995

5. Key books and articles on traditional Māori society Top of page

Best, Elsdon. Spiritual and mental concepts of the Māori. 1986
Looks at the spiritual concepts wairua, mauri, kēhua, aria, āhua, hau, manawa and tipua and the mental concepts hinengaro, ngākau and puku.

Best, Elsdon. The Māori. 1924.
Best lived among the Tūhoe of the Urewera mountafins from the 1880s, was the Dominion Museum's Ethnologist from 1911 to 1931 and was president and editor of the J.P.S. 1922-1931. This book covers social life and customs, arts, agriculture, fishing, war, music, games, forest lore, buildings and scientific knowledge. 2 volumes.

Best, Elsdon. The Māori as he was: A brief account of Māori life as it was in pre-European days. 1934.
Post-humously published. Shorter than the previous work. Covers physical and mental characteristics, traditional history, mythology and folklore, fishing, agriculture, war, music, games. forest lore, buildings and science. Best lived among the Tūhoe of the Urewera from 1890 to 1911, later becoming ethnologist at the Dominion Museum.

Firth, Raymond. Primitive economics of the New Zealand Māori. 1929
Includes chapters on transport, gift exchange, land, property and wealth, hākari and work and production.

Hanson, F. Allan. Counterpoint in Māori culture.
Looks at tapu, noa, muru, war and conflict, cannibalism and slavery.

Makereti. The old-time Māori. 1986.
Kinship, the whanau and hapu, marriage. Birth and children, menstruation, massage. Food, agriculture, fishing and hunting. The author, from Te Arawa, was the first Māori woman to obtain an M.A. First published in 1938.

Orbell, Margaret. The illustrated encyclopedia of Māori myth and legend. 1995
The bulk of the entries relate to famous ancestors, mythical figures and atua. There is also material on more general aspects of traditional Māori society including spritual and mental concepts and natural phenomena. Sources are listed in an endnote.

Salmond, Anne. Two worlds: First meetings between Māori and European, 1642-1772. 1991
Covers voyages of Tasman, Cook and earliest French explorers. Compares European and Māori society at this time.

Shawcross, Kathleen Anne. Māoris of the Bay of Islands 1769-1840: A study in changing Māori attitudes to Europeans. Thesis (MA)--University of Auckland, 1966.

Shortland, Edward. Traditions and superstitions of the New Zealanders: With illustrations of their manners and customs. 1856.
Has detailed contents pages but no index.

Tikao, Teone Tāre. Tikao talks: Kā taoka tapu o te ao kohatu: treasures from the ancient world of the Māori. 1990
Tikao was a Ngāi Tahu kaumatua. A compendium of Māori knowledge.

Tregear, Edward. The Māori race. 1904.
572 pp and index. Aims to be comprehensive.

Religion Top of page

Best, Elsdon. Māori religion and mythology: Being an account of the cosmogony, anthropogeny, religious beliefs and rites magic and folklore of the Māori folk of New Zealand. 1924
Well-indexed with listings under names of atua and tipua. Covers mauri, hau and manawa ora, the spiritual nature of man, mākutu, "origin myths, nature myths, personification in myths, demon lore and fables, omens and superstitions".

Prytz-Johansen, J. The Māori and his religion in its non-ritualistic aspects. 1954
Has been influential. Looks at meanings of concepts such as mana, tapu, utu as revealed by a careful study of all the early published sources.

Prytz-Johansen, J. Studies in Māori rites and myths. 1958

Smith, S. Percy. The lore of the whare wānanga or Teachings of the Māori college on religion, cosmogony, and history. 1913-1915.
Transcript of the proceedings kept by Te Whatahoro at one of the last of the traditional whare wānanga, held at Papawai c1860. In Māori and English.

Cosmology and cosmogony Top of page

Salmond, Anne. ‘Te Ao tawhito: A semantic approach to the traditional Māori cosmos’ in Journal of the Polynesian Society, v.87, pp.5-28.

Schrempp, Gregory Allen. Māori cosmogonic thought. 1987

Law and government Top of page

Bowden, Ross. ‘Tapu and Mana: Ritual authority and political power in traditional Māori society’ in Journal of Pacific History, 1979

Gathercole, Peter. ‘Hau, mauri and utu: A re-examination’ in Mankind, no.11, p.334, 1978.

Patterson, John. ‘Utu and punishment’ in Victoria University of Wellington Law Review, no.21:p.239, 1991

Patterson, John. ‘Utu, revenge and mana’ in British review of New Zealand studies, v. 2, 1989 p.51,

Education Top of page

Openshaw, Roger. ‘Early Māori education: Creating an educational heritage for Aotearoa?’ in British review of New Zealand studies, v.6, pp.93-103.
Considers the reconceptualization of pre-European Māori education.

Smith, S. Percy. The lore of the whare wānanga or Teachings of the Māori college on religion, cosmogony, and history. 1913-1915.
Transcript of the proceedings kept by Te Whatahoro at one of the last of the traditional whare wananga, held at Papawai c1860. In Māori and English.

Whānau, hapū and iwi Top of page

Best, Elsdon. The Māori. 1924
Pages 2-27 on birth, abortion, infanticide, weaning, contraception etc.

Best, Elsdon. ‘Māori customs pertaining to birth and baptism’ in Journal of the Polynesian Society, v.38, pp.241-269

Best, Elsdon. The whare kohanga, (the "nest house") and its lore: Comprising data pertaining to procreation, baptism and infant betrothal &c, contributed by members of the Ngāti Kahungunu tribe... 1975.

Graham, George. ‘Whāngai tamariki: The custom pertaining to the adoption of children’ in Journal of the Polynesian Society, v. 57, pp.268-278

Metge, Joan. ‘Te rito o te harakeke: Conceptions of the whānau’ in Journal of the Polynesian Society, v.99, 1990, p.55

Orbell, Margaret. ‘The traditional Māori family’ in Koopman-Boyden, Peggy Families in New Zealand society. 1978

Schwimmer, Eric. ‘The Māori hapū: A generative model’ in Journal of the Polynesian Society, v.99, 1990, pp.297-317

Women Top of page

Binney, Judith. Some observations on the status of Māori women in New Zealand journal of history Vol.23, no.1, pp.22-31 (April 1989)

Heuer, Berys. ‘Māori women in traditional family and tribal life’ in Journal of the Polynesian Society, v.78, pp.448-494

First-hand accounts of early explorers, missionaries and traders Top of page

Banks, Joseph. The Endeavour journal of Joseph Banks. 1962

Cook, James. The journals of Captain James Cook on his voyages of discovery. 1955-1974

Craik, George L. The New Zealanders. 1830
Includes notes about early Māori visitors to England and Australia and their impressions of English civilisation.

Dieffenbach, Ernest. Travels in New Zealand. 1843, 1974.

Earle, Augustus. Narrative of a residence in New Zealand...1966.
Earle was a young gentleman artist on an extended holiday. Generally antipathetic to missionary endeavours, and sympathetic to Māori.

Maning, F.E. Old New Zealand. 1863
Various subsequent editions. Maning's reminiscences of life as a trader in Hokianga in the 1830s. Includes anecdotes of muru, tapu, tohunga, matakite

Nicholas, John Liddiard. Narrative of a voyage to New Zealand. 1817
Notes on family life, women, polygamy and adultery, cannibalism, tapu and Māori "character".

Polack, Joel Samuel. Manners and customs of the New Zealanders: With notes corroborative of their habits usages etc...1976.
Polack was in New Zealand from 1831-1837 working as a trader. The books are mainly about the Bay of Islands and Tolaga Bay.

Polack, Joel Samuel. New Zealand: Being a narrative of travels and adventures during a residence in that country between the years 1831 and 1837. 1839
Tolaga, Northland.

Savage, John. Some account of New Zealand: Particularly the Bay of Islands and surrounding country : with a description of the religion and government, language, arts manufactures, manners and customs of the natives...1973.

Taylor, Richard. Te Ika-ā-Māui. 1974.
Taylor was a missionary stationed at Wanganui. His book includes notes on cosmology, mythology, atua, matakite, patupaiarehe, tapu, karakia, tangaihanga and whakataukï.

Yate, William. An account of New Zealand...1835
Yate was a C.M.S. missionary at the Bay of Islands. Pages 80-164 of his book note his impressions of Māori customs and beliefs.