APA Referencing : A guide for business students

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Referencing - a key academic skill

  • Referencite

APA Style

In-text citations:

  • Single / multiple authors
  • Subsequent citation
  • Multiple citations from the one author
  • Use of brackets - narrative and statements
  • Paraphrasing and quoting
  • Citing secondary sources

The reference list:

  • Alphabetical by author
  • Use of hanging indent

APA basics - referencing examples for commonly used sources

Citation tools:

Items from library databases - general tips

Websites - general tips

Audiovisual material

Other formats

Books - in print

E-books

Journal / Newspaper articles you have read in print

Online course material (in Canvas)

Readings from a printed course book

APA style manuals and further assistance

All examples within this guide are based on APA Style as set out in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). 2010

  • The examples within this guide are representative only. The official APA Style website is also a good resource to check - the FAQs tackle how to cite social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook. If you have any queries please contact your Business Subject Librarian
Referencing - a key academic skill

Accurate and correct referencing is fundamental to academic writing. Academic writing requires the use of other authors to strengthen arguments and insights as well as support your own ideas. The purpose of referencing is to acknowledge the ownership of the other information you have used in your writing. Academic writing enables knowledge and ideas on a topic to be shared and built upon.

  • Referencing acknowledges the ownership of these sources of information. When you refer to another writer’s ideas in your assignment, whether you paraphrase or use a direct quotation, you must give the source. Failure to do so is considered plagiarism.
  • APA is the style of referencing used by the University of Auckland Business School.

For more about referencing at the University look at ReferenCite from the Student Learning Centre. This includes Quick©ite - a wizard to help you format your references in APA style.

APA style

APA (American Psychological Association) Style is an author date system. It consists of:

  • An 'in-text' statement - sources you are referring to may be paraphrased or quoted directly in your essay. The work is identified by author or editor, followed by year of publication.
  • A reference list - appears at the end of your essay and includes full details of each information source used in-text.

In-text citations - cited in the body of the work

Authors may be

  • People's names, e.g., (Revington, 2007) or (Drucker, 2004)
  • Multiple authors - Poulin, Mills & Spiller (1998)
  • A corporate author, e.g., an organisation, a government department - (Air New Zealand Limited, 2008)
  • Two or three words from a title where there is no author. (Reinventing Auckland, 2003)

Use of brackets:

  • If the author's name is used as part of your narrative, only the date is placed inside brackets
    • Jones (2003) raises the issue of evaluation in course work.
  • If you are making a statement, both the name and year are included in brackets
    • The Flight Centre initiated a structure of seven person teams they called families (Revington, 2007).

Subsequent citation of multiple authors:

The second time you refer to a book with several authors, you put the first author and the words et al. which means "and others".
Poulin et al., (1998) note that Mills Reef Winery is a family-owned business.

Multiple citations from the one author from the same year

Multiple citations to different works from the one author from the same year are distinguished by assigning a, b, c, to the citations (in text and also in the reference list). This is entered after the date, e.g., (Brown, 2009a), (Brown, 2009b).

Sources may be:

  • Paraphrased
    This is where you are putting another author's ideas in your own words
    • The 737s were projected to cope with demands of…. (Air New Zealand Limited, 2001).
    • The Viaduct Basin is projected to grow at 300% (Reinventing Auckland, 2003).

  • Quoted directly
    For print sources include the text inside double quote marks, and inside the brackets author name, year of publication, page number.

    "Mill's Reef Winery is a family-owned business" (Poulin, Mills & Spiller, 1998, p.91).

    "Mill's Reef Winery is a family- owned business" (Poulin et al., 1998, p.91). Note in this example et al. means this book has already been cited earlier in your essay.

    This is seen as a sign of "e-commerce at its most successful" (Moore, 2002, p.4).

If you wish to include a very long quote, place it in an indented paragraph on a new line. In this case don't use quotation marks.

Mill's Reef Winery is a small family-owned business. It was recently targeted for a takeover, but family members resisted the bid. This boutique winery, based on Waiheke Island, has enjoyed recent success in the competitive New Zealand wine market by winning the Wine Association's gold medal for its pinot gris (Poulin, Mills & Spiller, 1998, p.91).

See also

Citations from a secondary sources:

  • Often if you are reading an academic article, you will find information the author you are reading has cited from another author or source, (e.g., you are reading an article by Ropata who cites a piece of information by King) and you want to cite what King is reported by Ropata (your author) to have said. This is called citing from a secondary source. It is good practice if you can, to try and locate the original cited article. You would do this by going to the reference list of your article use the full reference to King's article to find and read the original. Doing this enables you to see the full context in which the cited information found in your source was written and you would then cite this as an author you read.
    If this is not possible, the following are formats, among others, that can be used to cite a secondary citation:

Quoting a sentence or phrase:
“When teams are clear about what has to be done, there is less room for confusion,” (King as cited in Ropata, 2012, p.11).


or when paraphrasing, (the ideas or information written in your own words) :
...... King, (as cited in Ropata, 2012), supports the view that the major success in teamwork is down to the communication skills of the team.

  • Note: In this instance, in the reference list you would list the author that you read, Ropata, not King that you cited from reading Ropata.

    Ropata, C. (2012) Teamwork for winners, Harvard Business Review, 34 (5). Retrieved from Business Source Premier database

 


The reference list

This is where you include the full details for each source cited in text. It appears at the end of the assignment. (In contrast a bibliography would include all sources for background or recommended further reading on the topic).

There are specific rules for how different types of sources - books, journal articles, websites - must be cited. In all cases the objective is to ensure the reader of your work can locate the sources you have used.

  • Arrange the reference list alphabetically by author name
  • Where there is no author arrange by the title. In titles ignore the initial article, ie, The or A, when adding to the list. In the example below the full title for the first entry is The best places to work in New Zealand, however it is added under Best
  • Second and subsequent lines of the reference are indented by three spaces.
  • Multiple citations from the one author from the same year are distinguished by assigning a, b, c, to the citations. This is entered after the date. See example 4.1 and 4.2

Example of a Reference List

reference list

 


APA basics - referencing examples for commonly used sources
In a reference list In-text citation

1. Book with one author

Hale, P. (2009). Teamwork that works. Auckland: Freewheel Press.

Note: The first letter of the first word of the main title, subtitle and all proper nouns have capital letters.

"The crux of a team is its leader" (Hale, 2009, p. 45).

2. Book with two to five authors

Mill, H., Chan, L., & Tamahere, M. (2007). Skills for success. London: Pearson Education.

Note: If there are six or seven authors, cite only the first author followed by et al. If there are eight or more authors, list the first six, then three ellipses (…) and finish with the last author.

Referencing is accepted as the key to academic success (Mill, Chan & Tamahere, 2007).

3. Print book or report by a corporate author

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2011). Converting potential into prosperity: New Zealand's commitment to the Pacific. Wellington, N.Z.: Author.

Note: When the author and the publisher are the same, use Author in the publisher field.

New Zealand's role in the Pacific is changing rapidly (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2011).

4. Chapter in edited book

Brookes, W. (2008). New Zealand leaders. In J. Wilson (Ed.), Making a difference to New Zealand (pp. 236-243). Auckland: Pedal Press.

“Today's business students are tomorrow's leaders” (Brookes, 2008, p. 240).

5. Electronic book - from library database. For more on e-books see 3

Parker, G. M. (2008). Team players and team work: New strategies for developing successful collaboration (2nd ed.). Retrieved from EBSCO eBook Collection database.

Note: Rather than entering the Location: Publisher details a statement is added to indicate the database you accessed the e-book from.

The essence of teamwork is communication (Parker, 2008).

6. Web page

Statistics New Zealand. (2009). New Zealand in profile 2009. Retrieved from http://stats.govt.nz

Note: Key fields to include with a web page are author (often an organisation), date (where available - otherwise put n.d.), title and URL.

(Statistics New Zealand, 2009).

7. Journal article - academic scholarly (retrieved from a database) with a DOI (for more on DOIs see 1.4)

Ruth, D. (2007). Management development in New Zealand. Journal of European Industrial Training, 31(1), 52-67. doi:10.1108/03090590710721736

Survey results indicate an increase in the number of managers in companies in New Zealand (Ruth, 2007).

8. Journal article - academic scholarly (retrieved from a database) with no DOI

Birkinshaw, J., & Goddard, J. (2009). What is your management model? MIT Sloan Management Review, 50(2), 81-90. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Global.

"companies are discovering that a distinctive management model can itself be a key driver of its competitiveness" (Birkinshaw and Goddard, 2009, p.82).

9. Journal article - academic scholarly (print version)

King, J. (2005). Conflict in teams. Journal of Management Studies, 40(3), 26-28.

King claims that conflict in teams is inevitable (2005).

10. Journal article - academic scholarly (internet only - no print version)

Hsing, Y., Baraya, A., & Budden, M. (2005). Macroeconomic policies and economic growth: The case of Costa Rica. Journal of Applied Business Research, 21(2), 105–112. Retrieved from http://www.cluteinstitute.com/journals/JABR.html

(Hsing, Baraya & Budden, 2005).

11. Magazine article - popular/general interest ( in print)

Wane, J. (2012, February). Band of brothers. North & South, 311, 56-64

(Wane, 2012).

12. Magazine article - popular/general interest (from database)

Wane, J. (2012, February). Band of brothers. North & South, 311, 56-64. Retrieved from Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre database.

(Wane, 2012).
13. Newspaper article (from website)

Hembry, O. (2008, June 25). Fonterra boosts Aussie presence. The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved from www.nzherald.co.nz

Fonterra will be the third largest player in the yoghurt and dairy dessert business in Australia (Hembry, 2008).

14. Newspaper article (from database)

Donovan, B. (2008, August 7). New childcare laws threaten gym creches. New Zealand Herald, p. A03. Retrieved from Newztext Plus database.

(Donovan, 2008).

15. Newspaper article (print version)

Cumming, G. (2004, April 5). Investment and risk. The New Zealand Herald, p. B5.

Note: Include p. or pp. before the page number. This is used for newspapers only, not magazines or journals. p. = one page, pp. more than one page.

If page numbers are discontinuous, separate page numbers with a comma, e.g., pp. A1, A4-5.

(Cumming, 2004).

16. Press release from news aggregator site such as stuff.co.nz

University of Auckland. (2009, October 8). Auckland still in top100 [press release]. Retrieved from http://www.scoop.co.nz

Auckland retains its ranking in the top 100 universities (University of Auckland, 2009).

17. Personal communication (emails, conversations, interviews)

Note: These are not included in the reference list, although you can include them in your text as a personal communication

Capital gains tax is certain to be introduced within the next four years (T. Franks, personal communication, May 10, 2009).

18. Course handouts or lecture slides

Plester, B. (2011). Lecture 3: MGMT 211, Semester 2 [PowerPoint slides]. Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland

(Plester, 2011).

19. Conference paper

Smithson, D. (2011, November). Invisibility in organisations: The role of extraversion and introversion. Paper presented at the Australian Conference for Research in Organisations, Sydney. Retrieved from http://www.rmit.edu.au/2011/conf/smithson.txt

Note: A capital letter is used for all key words in the conference name. Give the month of the conference if the paper has not been formally published.

Conference paper - in published proceedings

To cite published proceedings from a book, use the same format as for a book or book chapter.

 

(Smithson, 2011).

 


1. Items from library databases - general tips

Reference List In-text citation
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, month day - enter month day if available). Title of article. Title of Publication, Volume(issue number), xxx-xxx. Retrieved from [name of library database]. Smith (2002, para.6) found that the key to student success was to "learn to cite correctly". or As Smith (2002,¶ 6), wisely stated, "learn to cite correctly".
  • Give the complete name of the library database rather than the URL of the web page.
  • If the article has page numbers include them in the reference.
  • For citations with no author, begin with the title first.
  • Do not capitalise the article title - only the first word of the title, the first word of any subtitle and proper nouns.
  • Do not place quote marks around the title of the article.
  • The name of the publication (i.e., journal) is capitalised.
  • Include the issue number if available.
  • Note the volume number is italicised, the issue number isn't.
  • Full stops are used at the end of each element and at the end of the citation.
  • The large international databases such as ABI/Inform and Business Source Premier have citation makers. Newztext Plus does not - you must carefully note all information required to make your citation. Even with citation makers you need to check all details carefully as there can be errors.
  • 2010 6th ed update: Retrieval dates are only required for online sources which may change over time, such as wikis - library databases include 'stable' content therefore retrieval dates are not required.
  • For in-text citations where there are no page numbers use the abbreviation para. or the ¶ symbol and include the paragraph number.
 

1.1 Newztext Plus
  • Look to see if there is an author listed anywhere on the page.
  • Make sure you have got family name and first name in the correct order and always put family name first and use only initial/s for first name/s.
  • A citation to a printed newspaper, such as the New Zealand Herald indexed in Newztext Plus, includes p. or pp in front of the page number(s). E.g., p. A3 or pp. A1, A3 - made up of section, e.g., A and page numbers 1 and 3.
Reference List In-text citation
Donovan, B. (2008, August 7). New childcare laws threaten gym crèches. New Zealand Herald, p. A3. Retrieved from Newztext Plus Database. New child care laws are harming gym profits (Donovan, 2008).


1.2 ABI/Inform and Business Source Premier

Reference List In-text citation

Steverman, B. (2009, March 12). Where cautious consumers are causing chaos. Business Week Online, 13. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database.

Anderson, J. (2005, September). The great Chinese bank sale. Far Eastern Economic Review, 168(8), 7-12. Retrieved from ABI/Inform database.

Snyder, L. (2009). Teaching teams about teamwork: Preparation, practice, and performance review. Business Communication Quarterly, 72(1), 74-79. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database.

No author example - begin with the article title first, followed by date:
The incredible shrinking funds. (2008, October 24). The Economist, 389(8603), 83-85. Retrieved from ABI/Inform database.

The current recession is limiting the number of gym memberships (Steverman, 2009).

Chinese banks are for sale (Anderson, 2005).


Educators need to teach teamwork in business communication courses much as coaches do in the sports setting (Snyder, 2009).

The total amount invested in funds has dropped significantly (The incredible shrinking funds, 2008).


1.3 Passport

Passport provides market reports, comment and statistics. The reports can be global, country, industry or company. Using the description of form, in square brackets after the title, helps identify the type of material you have used from this database. Euromonitor International, the publisher of this database, is treated as corporate author.

Euromonitor International. (2007, October 3). The changing role of men: How this is affecting purchasing habits [Global report]. Retrieved from Passport.
Euromonitor International. (2010, March 9). Beer in New Zealand [Country report]. Retrieved from Passport.
In this example the report has no date, the retrieval date is included as this information may change over time:
Euromonitor International. (n.d.) Alcoholic drinks in New Zealand [Industry report]. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from Passport.
Euromonitor International. (2010, March 9). Lion Nathan Ltd in alcoholic drinks (New Zealand) [Company profile]. Retrieved from Passport.
Euromonitor International. (2009, September 25). New product developments in beer: less is more [Comment]. Retrieved from Passport.


1.4 Academic articles and DOI's

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, month day - enter month day if available). Title of article. Title of Publication, Volume(issue number), xxx-xxx. doi:

  • As URLs can potentially change, APA 6th ed. now recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to online scholarly journal articles.
  • A DOI is a unique alpha-numeric code assigned to individual online works.
  • You are not likely to see a DOI with a popular magazine or newspaper article.
  • For any article assigned a DOI, the database name or URL is not required.
  • No full stop occurs after the DOI.

Finding the article DOI

  • If the DOI is not easily located within the database citation, you can enter the article details at this site to check if a DOI exists: CrossRef.org DOI Lookup
  • You can also use a DOI to retrieve the full text of an article at this site: DOI resolver website. Enter the DOI, i.e., 10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.06.019 in the Resolve a DOI Name search box
  • TIPS:
    • Since DOI numbers are complex, we suggest copying and pasting the DOI into the reference.
    • Follow the new APA DOI formats if you are instructed to do so in your written work. It may be acceptable to follow older formats if you have not been requested to make the change and note that many citing tools in the Library databases have not yet updated to the new DOI format.

See also


1.5 Company reports

Company reports may be accessed from library databases or from public domain websites, such as the company website, or read in print. The source you use determines the format of the citation.

  • An annual report is treated as a book, place of publication and publisher are added to the citation.
  • Note the word 'Author' is used as the publisher when the author and publisher are the same.
Reference List In-text citation

From the NZX Annual Reports library database:
Pumpkin Patch Limited. (2010). Annual Report 2010. Auckland: Author. Retrieved from NZX Annual Reports database.

From the company website:
Pumpkin Patch Limited. (2010). Annual Report 2010. Auckland: Author. Retrieved from http://www.pumpkinpatch.biz/documents/238_PPL_2010_Annual_Report.pdf

Read in print:
Pumpkin Patch Limited. (2010). Annual Report 2010. Auckland: Author.

Pumpkin Patch Limited (2010)


2. Websites - general tips
 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, month day - enter month day if available). Title of article. Title of Publication. Retrieved [month day, year], from URL

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, month day - enter month day if available). Title of article. Title of Publication. doi:

 
  • Where the citation ends with an URL or DOI no full stop is placed at the end of the citation.
  • 2010 6th ed update: Retrieval dates are only required for online sources which may change over time, such as wikis.
  • If your reference continues to a second line, indent the second line 3 spaces (examples in sample reference list above)
  • If the URL goes to another line, break it before a slash or before a stop.

2.1 Online journal or magazine article

  • An online article may be different from the print version of the article, with no page numbers, volume or issue number.
  • Include the year and month.

Brown, R. (2003, October). God defend the All Black brand. Unlimited Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.unlimited.co.nz/unlimited.nsf/UNID/13565E280545E3FACC256D


2.2 Online newspaper article

  • A newspaper website, e.g., The New Zealand Herald, is considered stable therefore retrieval dates are not required.
  • Online newspaper articles do not have page numbers, so page numbers are not included in the citation.
  • Provide the homepage URL (in case the internal website reference to the article does change)
Reference List In-text citation

New Zealand Herald article from publisher's website:
Hembry, O. (2008, June 25). Fonterra boosts Aussie presence. The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved from www.nzherald.co.nz

Fonterra will be the third largest player in the yoghurt and dairy dessert business in Australia (Hembry, 2008).


2.3 Online article 'in press'

  • An online article in press is not yet formally published. A volume number and pages numbers are not assigned.
  • The description in press replaces the date information. Use a lower case ‘i’.
  • Full stops are used between the different elements of the citation.
  • The final version of the article will be assigned a volume number and page numbers.
  • TIP: Double-check your reference before submitting your assignment in case the citation has altered to the final version.

In press
Herington, C., Johnson, L. W., & Scott, D. (in press). Firm-employee relationship strength – A conceptual model. Journal of Business Research. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.06.019

Final version
Herington, C., Johnson, L. W., & Scott, D. (2009, November). Firm-employee relationship strength – A conceptual model. Journal of Business Research, 62(11), 1096-1107. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.06.019


2.4 Website - corporate author see also 2.9

  • Company and government websites - where no individual name is attributed to the material, add the institution as the author.
  • Press releases are good examples of citations where the work is attributed to the organisation.
  • Do not capitalise the title - only the first word of the title, the first word of any subtitle and proper nouns.
  • Description of form - these examples also have a description added in square brackets after the date, to help identify the material.
  • A retrieval date is not required. APA 6th ed advises this is only required for online sources which may change over time, such as wikis.

Fonterra. (2009, April 28). Fonterra exits joint venture in India. [Press Release]. Retrieved from http://www.scoop.co.nz/

Flinders Medical Centre. (2008, February). Redesigning care. [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.flinders.sa.gov.au/redesigningcare/files/pages/FMC_A_World_Leader_flyer.pdf


2.5 Website - working papers
  • The working paper number appears immediately after the title of the paper.
Dooley, M. P., Folkerts-Landau, D. & Garber, P. (2003, September). An essay on the revived Bretton Woods System (No. 9971). NBER Working Paper. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w9971

2.6 Website - no author
  • For website citations with no author, begin with the title first
  • Do not capitalise the title - only the first word of the title, the first word of any subtitle and proper nouns.
  • Description of form - this example also has a description added in square brackets after the date, to help identify the material.
  • The in-text citation uses the first two words of the title capitalised, in double quote marks in place of an author's name and the quote is referenced to a paragraph number in the text as there are no page numbers.


2.7 Website - no date, content may change
  • Where there is no date add (n.d.)
  • 2010 6th ed update: Retrieval dates are required for online sources which may change over time.
  • Add the complete URL.

Fonterra. Global food trends. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2009, from http://www.fonterra.com/wps/wcm/connect
/fonterracom/fonterra.com /Our+Products/Dairy+and+Nutrition/Global+Food+ Trends/


2.8 Large websites

  • For information contained within large websites with lots of pages, identify the organisation and the relevant department or sub-section
  • Include the term website: followed by URL.
  • The in-text citation uses the first two words of the title capitalised, in double quote marks in place of an author's name and the quote is referenced to a paragraph number in the text as there are no page numbers.
Reference List In-text citation

University of Auckland. (2009, September 22). Corporate psychopath employees a heavy toll on New Zealand businesses. Retrieved from the University of Auckland, Business School website: http://www.business.auckland.ac.nz/Schoolhome/News/Corporatepsychopathemployeesaheavytoll/tabid/1861/Default.aspx

"Up to one-in-ten New Zealand workplaces harbour a psychopathically-oriented worker" (University of Auckland, 2009, para. 1).


2.9 Referencing more than one web page within a website see also 2.4
  • When referencing more than one web page of information within a corporate or government website provide an URL that links to the homepage or entry page for the document.
  • Include the retrieval date if the content of the online source may change over time.
Statistics New Zealand. (2009). New Zealand in profile: 2009. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz
Vodafone NZ Ltd. (2009). Waikato Rugby Union: Case study. Retrieved 6 October, 2009, from http://www.vodafone.co.nz

2.10 Blog post
  • The same rules for citing to a website apply.
  • The author's name becomes the 'screen name'.
  • The subject line of the message is the 'title'.
  • APA uses this Description of form for a blog post [Web log message]
  • Add the complete URL.

Happy As. (2009, September 13). Does drinking vitamin and mineral-enriched milk improve your health? [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://blogs.nzherald.co.nz/blog/your-views/2009/9/2/do-you-think-drinking-vitamin-and-mineral-enriched-milk-improves-your-health/?c_id=168


2.11 Images from the web
  • Any format of material you get from another source needs to be referenced, this includes images or photographs from the web.
  • Note any particular copyright criteria associated with the image - you will need to gain permission from the author or copyright holder before use.

When an image is included in the body of an assignment it is treated as a Figure under APA rules. You provide a numbered caption to the figure immediately under the image. The word Source is included with the author date information in round brackets:
Figure 1: Description or title of image (Source: Author, Date).

In the Reference List a fuller citation including URL is given. A Description of Form in square brackets is added, noting the work is a Photograph:
Author/Artist last name, initials. (Year). Title of work [Photograph]. Retrieved from URL

 

3. E-books - general tips

Reference the item according to the format in which you read it

This applies most commonly to e-books. The Library often has the same book title available in print and e-book format.

Sarah reads the print copy and would therefore cite the book in APA print book style as:

  • Belbin, M. (1993). Team roles at work. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Whereas Jason reads the e-book copy of the same book and he would reference the book as an electronic source, giving name of the database which has the e-book files.

  • Belbin, M. (1993). Team roles at work. Retrieved from Ebsco database.


3.1 E-books accessed from the Library website

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of work (edition statement). Retrieved from [name of library database].

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Ed.s.). (Year). Title of work (edition statement). Retrieved from [name of library database].

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of work (edition statement). doi:

  • The Library makes e-books available from a range of publishers. Rather than entering the Location: Publisher details a statement is added to indicate the database you accessed the e-book from.

Parker, G. M. (2008). Team players and team work: New strategies for developing successful collaboration (2nd ed.). Retrieved from Ebsco database.

Till, B. D., & Heckler, D. (2008). The truth about creating brands people love. Retrieved from Safari Tech Books Online database.

Aydogan, N. (Ed.). (2008). Innovation policies, business creation and economic development: a comparative approach. Retrieved from SpringerLink database.

Cleland, D. I., & Gareis, R. (Ed.s.). (2007). Global project management handbook: Planning, organizing, and controlling international projects (2nd ed.). Retrieved from AccessEngineering e-Books database.

 

3.2 A chapter within an e-book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (edition statement) (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from [name of library database or URL].

  • Reference this way when the e-book has chapters by different authors and has an editor/s.
  • Note that the editors names are entered in the format initials then surname.

Triffin, R. (1997). The myth and realities of the so-called gold standard. In B. Eichengreen & M. Flandreau (Ed.s). The gold standard in theory and history (2nd ed.) (pp. 140-160). Retrieved from ProQuest Ebook Central database.


3.3 E-books accessed from the web

2010 6th ed update:

  • Use Available from when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the book, rather than the full book itself.

E.g., Google Books - limited preview only, with the site providing links to obtain the full text.

Geffner, A. B. (2004). Business English : a complete guide to developing an effective business writing style (4th ed.). Hauppauge, N.Y. : Barron's Educational Series. Available from Google Books.
  • Use Retrieved from when the whole item is available online. In this example the electronic retrieval source statement replaces the publisher location and name.

E.g., E-book - free download. If the content is only available in electronic format or is hard to find in print, include the source location.

Henney, N. (1922). The Book of business etiquette. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/23025
 

4. Online course material in Canvas

These examples cover course related materials

 
4.1 Lecturer's notes

Callagher, L. (2009a). Team contracts for team management. Retrieved from the University of Auckland Canvas website, MGMT 191 Introduction to Business.


4.2 A PowerPoint presentation
  • Note that a description of form is added to this citation [PowerPoint slides]

Callagher, L. (2009b). Team contracts for management [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from the University of Auckland Canvas website, MGMT 191 Introduction to Business.


4.3 Lecturer / student emails - personal communication

Email citations are not included in the reference list, although you can include them in your text as a personal communication.

  • A personal communication can be personal interviews, letters, memos, emails, telephone conversations etc. These non-recoverable personal communications are NOT included in the reference list.
  • When citing a personal communication try to provide an exact a date as possible and include initials with surname.

4.4 A recorded lecture
You need to reference the lecturer's name, the year, the name of the lecture recording, include a description of form [Lecture recording] and include website details, e.g.,

Hedges, M. (2009). Week 2 lecture on applications of demand and supply [Lecture recording]. Retrieved from the University of Auckland website http://commedia.com.auckland.ac.nz/ECON101


5. Other formats
5.1 Computer software

Do not cite software such as Word, Excel or programming languages. Provide references only for specialised software.

  • Include a description of form [Computer software]
  • For the in-text citations use the ¶ symbol to denote paragraphs in electronic files where there are no page numbers.

Amos, D. (2008). Concept mapping [Computer software]. New York: Techsite Media.

  • Provide the version and web address for software downloaded from a website.

Cecire, B., Paltrow, B., & Zhang, K. (2009). Mindmapping: Learn optimization skills (Version 5.1) [Computer software]. Retrieved from http://www.mindmapping.com


5.2 Numeric data

These examples help with citing data generated from products such as Table Builder on the Statistics NZ website, or the library databases World Development Indicators or Passport.

  • (n.d.) applies. A user generated data set is not treated as a formal publication with a publication date. It is created by the selection of variables on a particular day, this date is used as the retrieval statement.
  • Italicise the title of the data set, begin with Statistics for ...
  • Use the Description of form [Data file] immediately after the title and include information to allow others to recreate the data.
  • Table Builder - in this example customised data on ethnicity by age from the 2006 Census was generated. The organisation is treated as corporate author. Table Builder is added to the URL to identify this programme within the Statistics New Zealand site:

Statistics New Zealand. (n.d.). Statistics for ethnic group by age [Data file, Ethnic group, by age, 2006 Census]. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from Table Builder http://www.stats.govt.nz/tools_and_services/tools/tablebuilder.aspx

  • World Development Indicators - in this example customised data on long term unemployment within OECD countries for the years 2000 to 2009 was generated. The World Bank is treated as corporate author. The variables used to generate the data are added to the description of form. The library database name is provided, a URL is not required:

World Bank. (n.d.). Statistics for long term unemployment OECD countries [Data file, long term unemployment (% of total unemployment), OECD countries, 2000-2009]. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from World Development Indicators database.

  • Passport - in this example customised data on consumer expenditure on beer in New Zealand per household was generated. Euromonitor International, the publisher of this data, is treated as corporate author:

Euromonitor International. (n.d.). Statistics for consumer expenditure on beer in New Zealand [Data file, consumer expenditure on beer, NZ$ per household, 2005-2010]. Retrieved April 4, 2011, from Passport.


6. Audiovisual material
6.1 Videos / DVDs

Producer, A. A. (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Video recording] or [DVD]. City or country of origin: Studio.

 

University of Auckland. (Producer). (2003). Winemaking in New Zealand [DVD]. Auckland: University of Auckland Educational Media Centre.


6.2 YouTube video clips
  • Treat the producer of the clip as author, with (Producer) immediately following.
  • If authorship is unknown, begin with the title, followed by date.
  • Use (n.d.). if the date is not known.
  • Include a description of form [Video webcast] for a YouTube video:

3 News (Producer). (n.d.). Spark launch 2009 (TV3) [Video webcast]. Retrieved October 2, 2009 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tfew4GbnzfU


6.3 TV programmes on the web
  • For TV programmes made available as video on demand on a channel's website, fuller details are added than for a YouTube posting.
  • For a programme in a series, such as the 60 Minutes example below, the format follows the same style as a chapter in a book. The description of form [Television series episode] is added.
  • The city or country and programme studio are treated as publication place and publisher.
  • The URL is given in this example as the item is available on the web.

3 News (Producer). (2009, June 5). Lord of the rings: Michael Hill jeweller [Television series episode]. In 60 Minutes. Auckland: 3 News. Retrieved from http://www.3news.co.nz /Michael-Hill- Jeweller/tabid/371/articleID/107426/cat/31/Default.aspx


7. Books - general tips
  • Refer to authors using only initials for first names.
  • Do not capitalise the book title - only the first word of the title, the first word of any subtitle and proper nouns.
  • The title of the book is written in italics.
  • Edition statement - occurs immediately after the title, with no full stop or comma in between.
  • Put a colon (:) between place of publication and publisher's name.
  • Full stops are used at the end of each element and at the end of the citation.

7.1 Books - one author

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Hale, P. (2009). Teamwork that works. Auckland: Freewheel Press.


7.2 Books - two to five authors
  • List out all author names using an ampersand (&) before the last author. The format of surname, then initials remains the same for all authors.

Mankiw, N. G., Bandyopadhyay, D., & Wooding, P. (2009). Principles of macroeconomics in New Zealand (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic. : Cengage Learning.

Mill, H., Chan, L., & Tamahere, M. (2007). Skills for success. London: Pearson Education.


7.3 Books - referencing a chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Place of publication: Publisher.

  • Reference this way when a book has chapters by different authors and has an editor/s.
  • Note that the editors names are entered in the format initials then surname.

Brookes, W. (2008). New Zealand leaders. In J. Wilson (Ed.), Making a difference to New Zealand (pp. 236-243). Auckland: Pedal Press.

 

8. Journal / Newspaper articles you have read in print - general tips

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author. C. C. (Year, month, day). Title of article. Title of Journal/Newspaper, vol(issue), pp-pp.

  • For citations with no author, begin with the title first.
  • Do not capitalise the article title - only the first word of the title, the first word of any subtitle and proper nouns.
  • Do not place quote marks around the title of the article.
  • The title of the publication (ie, journal) is capitalised and in italics.
  • Most journals have a volume and issue number, if there is no volume or issue number put the month.
  • Note the volume number is italicised, the issue number isn't.
  • Include the page numbers of the article.
  • Full stops are used at the end of each element and at the end of the citation.

8.1 Journal or magazine article

King, J. A. (2002). Conflict in teams. New Zealand Journal of Management, 42(3), 26-28.


8.2 Newspaper article
  • For articles with no author, begin with the title first.
  • Do not capitalise the title - only the first word of the title, the first word of any subtitle and proper nouns.
  • The name of the publication (ie, newspaper) is capitalised.
  • The in-text citation uses the first few words of the title capitalised, in double quote marks in place of an author's name.

How to choose human resources software. (2008, July 12). The New Zealand Herald, p.19.


9. Readings from a printed course book

  • Cite each reading from a course book as the source.
  • Do not cite the course book as whole.
  • It is advisable to cite to the original source if you are referring to an article taken from a published journal.

9.1 Copy of a published article

As an example your course book may have a photocopy of an article by Peter Drucker from the Harvard Business Review. You are encouraged to cite to the original article. In this instance it is available within the Business Source Premier database:

Drucker, P. (2004). What makes an effective executive. Harvard Business Review, 82(6), 58-63. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database.


9.2 Article in course book written by the lecturer

Sometimes material in a course book is written by the teaching staff for a particular course.

  • In APA style this is considered a publication of limited circulation.
  • The author date and article title are followed by course book name.
  • Information helping to describe how this material may be accessed by others is added in square brackets after the title.
  • Publisher details include place of publication and name of organisation.
Inkson, K. (2011). Career dynamics. Business 101 Course book. [Available from the University of Auckland to enrolled students]. Auckland: University of Auckland Business School.


Tools to help with APA referencing

There are a range of software programmes and tools available to help create and collate your references:

Library database citation maker tools

The large international databases such as Business Source Premier from EBSCO and ABI/Inform from ProQuest have the functionality to create the citation to a selected article.

Citation tool within Business Source Premier

Citation tool within ABI/Inform

CAUTION

  • In the Business Source Premier citation tool the complete article title is capitalised. This is not correct APA format! Only the initial word in the article title should be capitalised.
    View the BEIS short video: Using the Business Source Premier Cite This function
  • In ABI/Inform it is no longer necessary to include date retrieved (2010 6th ed update), the Document ID information is not required and only the initial word should be capitalised in the article title See examples

 


In some cases you have to create the correct referencing format manually.

Creating a reference in APA format to a Newztext Plus database article

Creating a citation from Newztext Plus

Creating a reference in APA format to an Emerald Management Extra database article

Citation elements within an Emerald article

Creating a reference to an article on the Scoop or Stuff websites

stuff.co.nz and scoop.co.nz are news feed services, also known as an aggregator news services.

Items of news do not originate from Stuff or Scoop, but are collated from other media sources. Don't use Stuff or Scoop as the publisher or author in the reference.

  • If there is no author, start with the title.
  • If the source is a newspaper put the year, followed by month and day, of the issue.
  • For the in-text citation, because there is no author, the first two or three words of the title, enclosed in double quote marks, and year are used to identify the reference.

    Creating a citation from Scoop

 


Tools on the web

Referencing tools available via the Library

  • The Library supports RefWorks which is a tool to help you store and manage your references. EndNote is also available for staff and postgraduate students.

APA style manuals

Official APA Style publications

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

American Psychological Association. (2010). Concise rules of APA style (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

APA style guide to electronic references. (2012). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Available online. This resources explains changes to citing a variety of online sources and gives examples of articles with a DOI, preprint versions of journal articles, e-books, book chapters, online encyclopedias, raw data, online annual reports, sites with no date and more.

Supplementary reading

Emerson, L. (Ed.). (2013). Writing guidelines for business students. (5th ed). Southbank, Vic. : Thomson Dunmore Press.
Chapter 12 Referencing - APA Style describes how and why you should acknowledge other people's, concepts and figures.

Hunter, I. (2008). Write that essay: A practical guide to writing better essays and achieving higher grades. Macquarie Park, N.S.W. : McGraw-Hill.
Chapter 7 Referencing and other chores pp. 61-75 covers the APA author/date style

Manalo, E., Wong-Toi, G., & Hansen, M. (2009). The business of writing : written communication skills for business students. (3rd ed). Auckland : Longman.
Chapter 8 Referencing pp. 115-131 describes the basics of citing books, chapters in books, theses and articles from databases and the internet.

 


Copyright©The University of Auckland Library
Comments and suggestions to: Margaret Tibbles
Last updated: 9 March, 2017