Speech Science

Full list of library databases for Speech Science.

These databases are useful when searching for evidence for effective interventions:

  • Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR)
    Good resource for finding evidence based systematic reviews and protocols on the effectiveness of speech and language therapy interventions.
  • Cochrane Library
    Good resource for finding evidence based information on the effectiveness of speech and language therapy interventions, including systematic reviews and controlled trials.
  • SpeechBite
    Database for best interventions and treatment efficacy in speech and language therapy.
  • Trip
    Search multiple evidence based sites using keyword or PICO searches.

The PICO model of searching is recommended for finding evidence based information.

New Zealand

Alternative/Augmentative communication



Plan your search strategy

  • Write your topic as a sentence or question. For example: Is speech and language therapy more effective than a placebo or no intervention for reducing speech problems in patients with Parkinson's disease?
  • Identify and highlight the main concepts in your research question. For example: speech, language therapy, placebo, intervention, speech problems, Parkinson's disease.
  • Brainstorm synonyms and related terms for the main concepts.
  • Construct a concept map or table as below:
    Concept 1 Concept 2 Concept 3 Concept 4
    speech therapy placebo speech disorders Parkinson's Disease
    language therapy   articulation disorders Parkinson Disease
    voice training   speech  
  • Compose your search by selecting a word from each column.
  • Try searching various combinations of the keywords/synonyms, e.g.,
    speech therapy, placebo, dysarthria, Parkinson's Disease
    Language therapy, intervention, speech disorders, Parkinson Disease
    Voice training, placebo, articulation disorders, Parkinson Disease
  • In some databases combine your different concepts using the Boolean operator AND and combine your synonyms using the Boolean operator OR, e.g.,
    (speech therapy OR language therapy OR voice training) AND (placebo OR intervention) AND (articulation disorders OR speech disorders OR speech OR speaking OR dysarthria) AND (Parkinson's Disease OR Parkinson Disease)
  • In some databases truncation symbols (*, ?, $) and wildcards can also be used in combination with Boolean operators to find more results, e.g.,
    speech therap* OR language tharap* OR voice train*) AND (placebo* OR interven*) AND (articulation disorder* OR speech disorder* OR speak*) AND (Parkinson* OR Parkinson's Disease OR Parkinson Disease)

An alternative to a concept map for constructing searches regarding clinical questions is to use the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparative Intervention, Outcomes) model.

Population Intervention Comparative Intervention Outcomes
Parkinson's Disease or Parkinson Disease Speech Therapy or Language Therapy or Voice training

No intervention

Reduction in speech problems

Where to search?

  • The Catalogue finds books, journal titles, theses, multimedia and images. It is unlikely you will find an item on a narrow research topic, although some material will be useful as background reading.
  • Use Articles and more, Google Scholar or relevant Databases to search for articles.
  • Encyclopaedias, dictionaries and handbooks are a good starting point if you are unfamiliar with your topic.
  • Use the Trip database to construct searches using either keywords or the PICO model to find evidence-based material.

Building on your research

Use a literature-searching strategy that builds on information that you already have. Start with a relevant book or article and try some of the following:

  • Look at the reference list for more material.
  • Take note of the words used in the text of your book or article. They may provide useful new terms to use, which you can add to your concept map, when searching for more literature.
  • Find your book or article in the library catalogue or a database. Use the subject headings (sometimes referred to as descriptors or keywords) in the catalogue or database record to find similar material.
  • Look up other works by the author(s).
  • Search for citations to your book or article on Google Scholar, Scopus or Web of Science.

Literature Review

You may be asked to write a literature review as part of an assignment or thesis. Here are some links:

Systematic Review

Systematic reviews are exhaustive reviews of literature on a topic, usually undertaken to find evidence on the effectiveness of treatments.

American Psychological Association APA style is recommended for Speech Science students.



  • Referencing
    Access a range of tools and support material to assist your referencing work.


  • Quick©ite
    Use this interactive tool to view examples of references.
    Covers a range of styles used at the University of Auckland.

Last updated : 28 April 2021
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