New Zealand employment relations
Key books include:
- Anderson, G. (2011) Labour law in New Zealand
- Anderson, G. (2011) Reconstructing New Zealand's labour law: Consensus or divergence?
- Anderson, G. (2010) Employment law: A practical guide
- CCH. New Zealand employment law guide
- Geare, A. & Edgar, F.J. (2007) Employment relations 5th ed.
- Haynes, P., Oldfield, Y. & Fryer, G. (2006) New Zealand employment relations 3rd ed.
- Parker, J. (ed.). (2013) The big issues in employment: HR management and employment relations in New Zealand
- Rasmussen, E. (ed.). (2010) Employment relationships: Workers, unions and employers in New Zealand
- Rasmussen, E. (2009) Employment relations in New Zealand 2nd ed.
- Rasmussen, E. (ed.). (2004) Employment relationships: New Zealand's Employment Relations Act
Use the Catalogue to find additional material held in the Library.
Subject headings can be a good way of locating highly relevant content. Copy and paste any of these headings into an Advanced Search chosing 'in subject' and 'exact phrase' from the drop down menus. You can also combine a subject heading search with additional keywords.
|affirmative action programs new zealand||arbitration industrial new zealand|
|collective bargaining new zealand||discrimination in employment new zealand|
|industrial relations new zealand||industrial safety law and legislation new zealand|
|labor contract new zealand||labor laws and legislation new zealand|
|labor policy new zealand||labor unions new zealand|
|manpower policy new zealand||personnel management new zealand|
|sex discrimination in employment new zealand||women employment new zealand|
If you do not know the exact structure of subject headings, try a keyword search putting in terms you think may be relevant. Note that legislation in particular can be difficult to locate using a subject search.
- New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations
The main journal specifically covering New Zealand employment.
- British Journal of Industrial Relations and Journal of Industrial Relations (Australia)
May also have content relating to New Zealand.
Undertake quick searches for online journals the Library has access to.
- Catalogue Advanced Search
Select Journals as Material Type; more in-depth searches can be entered.
Use Business Source Premier or for New Zealand material Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre to search for journal articles on a topic.
Full list of library databases for Management & International Business.
- Legal journals
You may also find relevant New Zealand content in these sources.
- University of Auckland theses via the Catalogue
Try a keyword search including the word thesis, e.g.:
thesis mcom employment university auckland
thesis phd labour university auckland
Open access research (including theses) produced at universities, polytechnics, and other research institutions in New Zealand. It provides a single access point to the content of New Zealand research repositories such as the University of Auckland's ResearchSpace
- Union list of higher degree theses in New Zealand libraries and the supplement
- Lists theses from New Zealand universities up to 1999.
See also Finding theses and dissertations.
Key acts in Westlaw NZ
- Employment Relations Act 2000
See also Employment Relations Amendment Act 2010 and the Employment Relations (Secret Ballot for Strikes) Amendment Act 2012 which are consolidated into the above Act.
- Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992
- Holidays Act 2003
See also Holidays Amendment Act 2010 which is consolidated into the above Act.
- Parental Leave and Employment Protection Act 1987
See also Parental Leave and Employment Protection (Paid Protection Leave for Self-Employed Persons) Amendment Act 2006 which is consolidated into the above Act.
Bound print volumes of the Acts of Parliament are held in both the General Library's New Zealand and Pacific Collection (call number NZP 346.3 N56s) and the Davis Law Library (call number B/NZ). A wall chart listing legislation in force is available near the relevant collections.
The main sources for employment case law in New Zealand are:
- Employment Case Law Westlaw NZ
- Employment Reports of New Zealand (ERNZ) Westlaw NZ
- New Zealand Employment Law Reports (NZELR) LexisNexis NZ
- New Zealand Employment Law Cases (NZELC) IntelliConnect (CCH) from 1986
These resources either give access to verbatim discussion in Parliament, or give background to, and reasons for, policy and legislative decisions:
- Papers presented
Documents presented to the House by Ministers or the Speaker, including annual reports, statements of intent, Budget documents, Law Commission, Auditor-General, and Commissions of Inquiry reports, international treaties, and regulations.
- Parliamentary business
Including Bills, Supplementary Order Papers, Order Papers, debates, oral and written questions, daily progress (summary of business of the House for the most recent week), Journals, papers, petitions presented, Standing Orders, Speakers' Rulings, and sessional orders.
- New Zealand Parliamentary Debates (Hansard)
A record of all speeches made in Parliament; an invaluable source for discussion on legislation. Particularly informative are the debates associated with the second reading of a Bill where the viewpoints of all parties are aired and the debate can be substantial.
- Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives
- Published annually, a record of papers tabled in Parliament including annual reports of government departments and select committees, and the reports of royal commissions and committees of inquiry. Papers in the AJHRs are classified under a system of “shoulder numbers”, e.g., the annual report of what was the Department of Labour has a shoulder number G1. Indexes are at the end of each bound volume.
- AtoJs Online
A collection of digitised volumes of the Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives and the Votes and Proceedings of the House of Representatives, currently covering 1854-1950.
- Accident Compensation Corporation
Includes injury statistics, legislation and annual report.
- Employment Relations
Part of the Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment (previously Department of Labour). Covers employment, occupational safety and health, and immigration.
- Employment Court
Provides an overview of the Employment Court and its operation.
- Employment Relations Authority
An independent body set up under the Employment Relations Act 2000.
- Human Rights Commission
Includes a summary of human rights legislation in New Zealand, information on the complaints process, sexual harassment and discrimination.
- Mediation Service
Mediation services under the Employment Relations Act 2000 are provided by the Department of Labour (now part of the Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment.)
- Minister for Workplace Relations and Safety (previously Minister of Labour)
Lists the legislation covered and areas of responsibility of this porfolio.
- Business New Zealand (Employers Federation)
- Diversity Works
Formerly known as Equal Employment Opportunities Trust.
- Employers and Manufacturers Association (Northern)
- New Zealand Chambers of Commerce
- New Zealand Council of Trade Unions
NZCTU directory (2016 edition).
- New Zealand Engineering, Printing and Manufacturing Union
- New Zealand Legal Information Institute
Free access to legal information in New Zealand.
- Public Service Association
- Centre for Labour, Employment and Work
Victoria University Wellington.
- Employment Relations Research Group
Auckland University of Technology.
Contain lists of references to journal and newspaper articles, books, chapters in books, conference papers and theses on a particular topic:
- Brosnan, P. (1991) New Zealand labour and employment research, 1859-1990: A bibliography of research and research materials
Arrangement is by type of publication: Statistics; Official; Papers (Reports of royal commissions, commissions of inquiry); Government publications; Books; Chapters in books; Journal articles; Theses and published conference papers. Indexes are by keyword, author, and date.
- Corliss, P. (2006) Words at work: An annotated bibliography of New Zealand trade union literature
- Geare, A. J. (1990) New Zealand industrial relations research, 1973-1988: A bibliography
- Roth, B. (1964) Labour legislation in New Zealand: A bibliography
Dated now but useful for historical research.
- Roth, B. (1977) New Zealand trade unions: A bibliography (2nd edition)
- Sayers, J. (1991) Employment equity in New Zealand: Definitions and a bibliography
As well as a bibliography this book also has discussion of employment equity and gives historical background to the issue.
- Sibbald, A.(1998) Twenty-one years of personnel/human resource management and industrial relations research in New Zealand: A bibliography, 1976-1997
Topics include collective bargaining, remuneration, disputes resolution, equal employment opportunities, women and work, pay equity, disabilities, ethnic and racial issues, training and development, health and welfare.
- Walsh, P. (1994) Trade unions, work and society: The centenary of the arbitration system
Provide an overview of the history of employment relations in New Zealand:
- New Zealand book of events (1986)
Within this book there is a section on ‘the work force’ chronicled up to 1985.Topics covered are wages and conditions, the unions, and strikes and lockouts.
- Across the counter: The lives of the working poor in New Zealand (1990) Appendix E in this report is a chronology titled ‘A short history of shop trading hours in New Zealand’.
- Bateman New Zealand historical atlas (1997)
Not a chronology as such. It includes comments, illustrative maps, graphs and charts on a variety of topics.
- Davies, L. (1993) Women’s labour force participation in New Zealand : the past 100 years
Fig.3.2 on p.27 shows the evolution of women’s labour force participation from 1893 to 1993. Topics chronicled include key social and economic events, key legislation, non-Maori and Maori participation, and participation patterns by age.
- Haynes P., Oldfield, Y. & Fryer, G. (2006) New Zealand employment relations 3rd edition
There is an historical time line from 1842 to 1992 chronicling industrial and legislative events, the state of the economy, and the years of Labour and non-Labour governments.
- Jackson, K.& McRobie A. (2008) Historical & political dictionary of New Zealand 3rd edition
There is a general New Zealand chronology from c.800
- Kasper, W. (1996) Free to work: The liberalisation of New Zealand's labour markets
Table 2 on pp.8-10 has major reforms and events, 1982-1995. Figure 1 on pp.14-15 graphs New Zealand reforms and economic performance, 1980-1995 (there are graphs for growth, inflation, the jobs market, and external balance).
- Hall, E.M. (1999) Managing New Zealand organisations: Principles, practices & issues 2nd edition
There is a brief overview and history of industrial relations and legislation from 1894-1993 on pp.278-291.
- New Zealand journal of employment relations (previously New Zealand Journal of Industrial Relations)
Each issue has a section called ‘Chronology’ which outlines and comments on industrial disputes that have occurred during the previous few months. This journal is available electronically full text on Business Source Premier from 2004 and full text on ABI/Inform from 1997-2006. Earlier issues from 1976 are in print in NZ+P (331.10995 N53T)
- Boston, J. (1996) Public management: the New Zealand model
Appendix 1 is ‘A summary of New Zealand’s public sector reforms 1984-95’. Topics chronicled include ‘Commercialization, corporatisation and privatisation’, ‘Machinery of government’, ‘Human resource management’, ‘Financial management’, ‘Expenditure control’, and ‘Local government reforms’.
- Sutch. W.B.(1969) Poverty and progress in New Zealand: A reassessment
There is a chronology from 700 to 1967. Topics comparatively chronicled are external events, political, economic trends and events, the wage earner, and welfare, education, civil liberties.
- Labour History Project
Formerly the Trade Union History Project, was founded in 1987 by a number of concerned historians and trade unionists to both encourage and promote trade union history and to attempt to save trade union archives. Links to Union directories, union histories and biographies.
- Harbridge, R. & Thickett, G. (2002) A sourcebook of New Zealand trade unions and employee organisations
Also includes comment on legislative change (1894, 1987, 1991) and unions and union membership. Lists ‘union obituaries’, i.e., unions that merged or ceased.
- Print copies of NZCTU directories and Federation of Labour directories up to 1993 are in the Library. [NZP 331.880995 N43]
There have been numerous commissions of inquiry in New Zealand looking at labour market and working conditions.
- A checklist: New Zealand royal commissions, commissions and committees of inquiry, 1864-1981
This publication lists commissions in chronological order. There is also a Chairman index and a subject index. The shoulder number is given for reports that are in the Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. This publication lists reports up to and including 1981.
- Thorns, T. & Sedgwick, C. (1997) Understanding Aotearoa / New Zealand: historical statistics
Appendix B on page 186 lists in chronological order Royal Commissions from 1864 to 1995. Appendix C on page 188 lists in chronological order Commissions and Committees of Inquiry from 1869 to 1988.
For reports since then consult the indexes in the back of the bound volumes to the Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. Suggested point of entry is “Royal commissions, committees and special reports”. Reports and proceedings of Select Committees are usually in the I section of the AJHR.
A selection of commission reports in the AJHR includes:
- Royal commission to enquire into the working of the Employment of Females Act. AJHR 1878 H2
- Royal commission into certain relations between employers of certain kinds of labour and persons employed therein. ‘Sweating commission’. AJHR 1890 H5
- Workers compensation commission report. AJHR 1930. H 11A
- Equal pay. AJHR 1971 H54 (and progress report AJHR 1976 G1A)
- Royal commission on Social policy. AJHR 1987-90 H2 (NB The April Report is also shelved at NZP 309.195 N536). See especially vol. 3 pt. 1 ‘Work’.
- Effects of the Employment Contracts Act 1991 on the New Zealand labour market. AJHR 1991-93 I4B
- Report on the inquiry into the effects of the Employment Contracts Act 1991 on the New Zealand labour market. AJHR 1991-93. I9D
- Labour Committee. Report on the Employment Contracts Bill. AJHR 1991-93. I9A
Additional publications of reports not found in the AJHRs include:
- Compensation for personal injury in New Zealand: Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry 1967
- Salary and wage fixing procedures in the New Zealand State Services 1972: Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry 1972
- Across the counter: The lives of the working poor in New Zealand 1990: Report of the Second New Zealand Sweating Commission 1990
Includes sections on trends in shop trading hours, legislation affecting shop workers, low pay, health and safety, management practices, and employer hostility to the unions.
Statistics New Zealand
The main source for data on the New Zealand labour market. Sub-site content of interest:
- Comparing our labour market statistics
Gives useful background on the different statistics collected.
- Employment and unemployment
- Entering the phrase "labour market statistics" in the search box on the website will also give good results.
The main surveys carried out are:
- Household Labour Force Survey
New Zealand's official statistics on the number of people employed, unemployed, and not in the labour force; actual and usual hours worked; the numbers of people in occupations and industries.
- Quarterly Employment Survey (QES)
Estimates the number of filled jobs at established businesses, not the number of people employed.
For very detailed data a valuable resource is:
- Census of population and dwellings
Gives demographic information including data on types of industries and occupations people were employed in. The latest Census was on 5 March 2013. Census results will be released progressively from 15 October 2013 to June 2015. Data for the 1996, 2001 and 2006 censuses is also online at Statistics New Zealand's website.
Statistics New Zealand online tool that allows you to create customised tables from a wide range of large datasets.
Statistics NZ online tool that gives access to a range of time-series data.
- New Zealand Time Series
Includes statistical data from the Household Labour Force Survey and additional employment data. Look under the heading Labour market. Data can be downloaded in a variety of spreadsheet formats. (Similar coverage to Infoshare).
- OECD iLibrary
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) publications and data.
International Labour Office (ILO) database on labour statistics.
Print statistics are located in a separate section on Level M, General Library. Key statistical publications include:
- New Zealand official yearbook 1893-2010. After 2010 the Yearbook has only been available online.
Provides an excellent range of summary statistics plus commentary and overview. The chapter ‘Employment’ includes comment and statistics on labour relations. The 1990 Yearbook (celebrating the sesquicentennial) is worth a special look as it has a number of commentaries on conditions last century. Yearbooks often include special studies on various topics.
- Special sections/chapters relevant to employment relations include:
Labour in New Zealand (1894 Yearbook)
Wages and working hours in New Zealand (1919 Yearbook)
Industrial relations - the next ten years and beyond (1966 Yearbook)
- Special sections/chapters relevant to employment relations include:
- Labour market statistics
Annual publication from Statistics New Zealand, produced from 1991-2008.
- Key statistics
A monthly publication published from 1989-2010 which has a section on the labour force.
- New Zealand social trends: Work (1993)
An excellent one-off publication based on data from the 1991 Census. It looks at paid and unpaid work and at various characteristics of the workforce eg labour force growth; migration and the labour force; labour force mobility; employment patterns of men and women; ethnic differentials in employment; unemployment.
- All about women in New Zealand (1993)
Published to commemorate the centenary of women’s suffrage in New Zealand. The section titled ‘Work’ has statistics and comment on the past 100 years.
- New Zealand now: Women
Chapter 5 on work includes the top ten occupations of men and women according to 1996 census data.
- Women (1999)
- Census of population and dwellings. 1871- [S2/NZ CEN].
The print publications from the Census go back to 1871. Includes data on types of industries and occupations people were employed in. Data for the 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2013 census is online at Statistics New Zealand.
- Bloomfield, G. T.(1984) New Zealand : a handbook of historical statistics
A good collection of long time series of data on topics which include the labour force.
- Statistics and numeric data
Library produced list of links to web resources and printed sources.
The University of Auckland Business School uses the American Psychological Association APA 6th style.
- Business and Economics guide to APA
- APA style guide to electronic references (6th ed.)
- APA style blog
Access a range of tools and support material to assist your referencing work.
Use this interactive tool to view examples of references. Covers a range of styles used at the University of Auckland.