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WEB  REFERENCE SITES   :   GEOGRAPHY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 

The following is a combined list of links to websites, resources and reference material (eg. dictionaries, encyclopedias etc.) on the internet.  The links are arranged under the following groupings:

Bibliographic
Climatology
Cyber-geography
Distances
Environmental Geography
GIS
Human Geography
Legislation
Maori Land Maps Online
Maps, current
 
Maps, historical

Pacific Environment
Physical Geography
Place Names & Gazetteers
Political Geography & Country or Regional Studies
Pollution and Contaminants

 


Maori Land Maps Online
NZMS 13 cadastral maps 1inch to the mile / 1:63, 360 1914-1961
This series is being digitized and made available through the National Digital Heritage Archive. To find them go to the National Library of New Zealand catalogue, set quick limits to Map and search for <NZMS 13 online>. Many of the maps show Maori land blocks. The maproom has copies of these maps from some areas in drawers 54 & 56.

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Maps, current

Antipodes Map
In geography, the antipodes of any place on earth is its antipodal point - that is, the region on the Earth's surface which is diametrically opposite to it. Two points which are antipodal to one another are connected by a straight line through the centre of the earth. Double-click on or move the original map to set a marker on a desired location. The antipode map will automatically show it's antipodal location.

Antipodes: the Other Side of the World
A map showing the antipodal point for everywhere.

The Atlas of Canada (includes Carto Corner) 
Information about the nature of maps, map projections, map content and design for the web, cartographic resources on the Internet, a cartographic glossary, and bibliographies relating to Canadian atlases since 1945 and "Further reading on Cartography".

Atlas of Cancer Mortality in New Zealand 1994-2000
The Atlas of Cancer Mortality in New Zealand 1994-2000 shows the recent spatial patterns of cancer mortality in New Zealand. The patterns show areas with a high or low cancer mortality, but they do not imply the causation of any cancer. No attempt has been made to investigate or suggest possible factors underlying or causing these patterns. However, the maps can be used as a stimulus for further research by suggesting possible aetiological hypotheses.

Atlas of Socioeconomic Deprivation in New Zealand
District Health Board Maps and background sections from the Atlas of Socioeconomic Deprivation in New Zealand NZDep2006. The purpose of maps is to reveal the socioeconomic landscape generated by the New Zealand Index of Deprivation 2006.

Auckland Council GIS Viewer
This site provides high-quality aerial photography, contours, property information and electoral boundaries for the whole region, from around Wellsford in the north to Tuakau in the south.

Blank / outline maps
More than 6,000 maps are available of countries and regions, in various versions (blank, with rivers, with towns, with administrative units etc) , each one in 6 graphic formats, vector and raster (GIF, PDF, CDR, SVG, AI, WMF).

California Geographic Survey
Includes panoramic aerial maps.

Checklist of Online Vegetation and Plant Distribution Maps
This list is arranged by area (world or continent), then subdivided by smaller region or country name, with links to the maps themselves. The checklist has been produced by the Library at the University of California, Berkeley.

Department of Conservation Maps
Park maps published by DOC, available through Craig Potton publishers.

Digital Chart of the World Server
This website will allow you to download the boundaries and layers of different countries, in Arc/INFO export format, from ESRI's Digital Chart of the World data set. Note that this database was developed in 1991/1992 and national boundaries reflect political reality as of that time.

e-Atlas of Global Development
A free, online, interactive tool, which maps and graphs more than 175 indicators from the World Bank's development database.

The Earth According to WGS 84
A site that lists the distance between degrees of longitude at every degree of latitude. A similar table is available for every ten minutes of latitude.

Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative
Based at University of California, Berkeley, the ECAI is a global consortium working to create a distributed virtual library of cultural information with a time and place interface.

ESA Earth Image Gallery
An interactive globe to find satellite images by keyword. Images are accompanied by descriptive text. Provided by the European Space Agency.

"Flyover" videos
A series of 27 short "flyover" videos of various parts of the world.  Most relate to California or Nevada, but there are four international "flyovers", including one from Kamchatka (Siberia) to New Zealand.

Gapminder
Maps statistics relating to wellbeing, health and development.

Geodetic Database
This database provides coordinates, heights, site photographs, access diagrams and other details of over 55,000 geodetic marks in New Zealand, the Chatham Islands, and Antarctica.

Google Street View
Explore New Zealand at street level. Take virtual walks, pan, rotate and zoom.

Index of New Zealand Geospatial Data
Geospatial information can be as diverse and varied as the uses it may be put to. Here are websites that provide geospatial information for New Zealand and examples of its applied use. Included are sources of raw data, image archives, interactive applications and more. Websites are sorted by subject and listed alphabetically.

KiwiRAP: New Zealand Road Assessment Programme
An atlas detailing "the Personal Risk and Collective Risk on New Zealand's state highways". This is done by a series of Star Ratings, following a Risk Mapping exercise. Includes data and maps.

Land Information New Zealand (LINZ)
Online access to Topo50 (1:50,000) and Topo250 (1:250,000) topographic maps, data, aerial photographs and orthophotos.

Māori Land Information or Pārongo Whenua Māori
The Māori Land Information Base (MLIB) is used to locate individual Māori land blocks on a computer-generated map. It contains Māori Land Court information about Māori freehold land, which the Māori Land Court in consultation with Māori has approved for release on the Internet. This information is overlaid on a digital cadastral database and includes: The size of each Māori land block; An indication of the number of owners; Topographical information such as roads and rivers; and relevant and appropriate management information, eg, if an incorporation or trust manages the land, etc.
Also available in Te Reo Māori: Pārongo Whenua Māori

Map Collections in Australia: a Directory
From National Library Australia.

Map-a-Planet
This U.S. Geological Survey site provides access to global imagery of the planets and satellites from a variety of missions in an easy to use web interface. Customize and download your own image maps of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and other planets and moons.

MapMyRun
Create, save and email your own route maps. Routes are drawn by clicking on the map to plot the different points. It is possible to select the type of 'points' in the DRAW IT toolbar to indicate the location of water, bathrooms, stretching areas, etc. Distances can be calculated as well.

Mapping the World
One of a number of British projects within the "Research Support Libraries Programme", this one aims to provide series-level cataloguing of post-1850 overseas mapping. Details of the project, and useful links to related websites are provided.

Mapping Trends in the Auckland Region
In 2009, one in three New Zealanders lives in the Auckland region. Consequently what happens in Auckland affects all New Zealand. The future of the region is the subject of widespread debate. Mapping Trends in the Auckland Region presents background data to help inform the debate. It looks at some fundamental social, demographic, and economic trends affecting people in the Auckland region. It focuses particularly on geographical patterns, and how these are changing over time. The data come from population censuses and projections, and cover the period 1991 to 2031. The results are presented primarily through maps and graphs.

Maps and Geographic Information Resources
This site is developed by the United Nations Cartographic Section. It is divided into four sections: General Maps (more than 100 General Maps are currently available), Peacekeeping Maps (latest deployment maps of U.N. peacekeeping operations), Thematic Maps, and Geographic Resources & Information. The Population and Geographic Data Section of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees prepares maps detailing the UNHCR's areas of operation.

Mathematical data for bibliographic descriptions of cartographic materials and spatial data
Links to online information about map projections, bar scale values, geographical coordinates, mile measurements, and a conversion table into millimetres of a variety of other measurements.

National Aquatic Biodiversity Information System (NABIS)
NABIS is an interactive web-based mapping tool. Users can map and display information about New Zealand's marine environment, species distributions and fisheries management. NABIS is provided by the Ministry of Fisheries as part of the New Zealand Biodiversity Strategy.

National Atlas of the United States
Work on compiling this atlas of online interactive maps began in 1997. Information is arranged into 11 broad categories (such as agriculture, climate, environment, geology, etc.) and within each category more specific topics can be mapped. Use your Web browser to display, print, and query custom-made maps. These maps include links to related sites on the Internet for more up-to-date, real-time, and regional data information.

National Atlases (electronic)
Austria
Canada
Korea
United States

National Geographic maps
Includes online jigsaw puzzles of maps.

New Zealand electorate profiles
This site has links to maps showing the 2007 electoral boundaries.

New Zealand minerals maps
A number of A4 sized maps in PDF format showing aggregate sources, coal deposits, New Zealand geology, gold deposits, industrial minerals, metallic minerals, and platinum group metals. From Crown Minerals.

North American Environmental Atlas
North American Environmental Atlas maps harmonize geographic information across North America's political boundaries to depict significant environmental issues at a continental scale. The Atlas assembles seamless, accurate cartographic data, including maps, documentation, and interactive map layers at a scale of 1:10,000,000. The variety of base and thematic map layers is continuously expanding, providing a foundation to analyze the status of environmental conditions and identify significant trends across North America.

North Korea Uncovered
This Google Earth project offers an extensive mapping of North Korea’s economic, cultural, political, and military infrastructures.  Through the topic menu, users of this program have easy access to geographical information on North Korea’s agriculture projects, aviation facilities, communications, hospitals, hotels, energy infrastructure, financial services, leisure destinations, manufacturing facilities, markets, mines, religious locations, restaurants, schools, and transportation infrastructure.  In addition to locations of economic interest, this map also displays anti-aircraft locations, the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) and Northern Line Limit Line (NLL), incarceration facilities, political monuments, political residencies, military bases, and nuclear facilities. [Note that this takes a while to download].

Online map of Springfield
Springfield, the home of the Simpsons of cartoon fame, has now been mapped
by employees of Cal State Uni in Pomona, Los Angeles.  There is also a directory of all the places featuring in the series, from Cletus' house to the John Ford Center for Alcoholic Cowboys and the Diz Nee Land Historical Park.

PagesJaunes - Photos de Villes
Virtually walk and tour the streets of every street in Paris, Madrid, Barcelona and other cities in France and Spain using street level imagery.

Pārongo Whenua Māori
Ko te Pātengi Raraunga Whenua Māori ka whakamahia hei tohu atu ki ngā poraka whenua ki runga i tētahi mahere rorohiko. Kei roto i a ia he pārongo mai i te kōti whenua Māori e pā ana ki te whenua Māori, ka mutu kua whakaae te Kōti me ngā Māori kia whakaputaina ngā pārongo nei ki runga i te ipurangi. Ka whakatakotongia tēnei pārongo ki runga i tētahi pātengi raraunga mahere. Anei e whai ake nei ngā momo pārongo: Te rahi o ia poraka whenua; Tokohia ngā kaiwhaipānga; Pārongo e pā ana ki te whenua, hei tauira: ngā huarahi me ngā awa; me Pārongo e pā ana ki te āhua o te whakahaere – hei tauira: mehemea kei te whakahaerehia te whenua e te kaporeihana, te rōpū tiaki rānei.
Also available in English: Māori Land Information

Post Code Finder
This New Zealand Post site provides post codes when street addresses, PO Box numbers, or Private Bag numbers, are entered. A map can be displayed showing the location of the address. It is also possible to search by post code and obtain a map showing the boundaries of the post code.
Detailed maps of postcode boundaries are available for Rodney District, Auckland City, North Shore City, Waitakere City and Manukau City.

Quick Maps
Small GIF maps of most countries of the world, with links to basic data about each country as well.

ReliefWeb situation maps
ReliefWeb is a project of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). Find maps of the latest humanitarian situations. Search / browse by country, theme, type of disaster etc.

School Enrolment Zones
This website is designed to search for and display school enrolment zone information. Information about private schools and state-integrated schools is not included. The website contains two main information search screens - Search for school information and view contact details, and Search and view enrolment zones map. The map has built in searching functions to search by school name, search by streetname or search by location. Controls are provided to zoom and pan the map and turn the school zones on and off.

Science Photo Library
A collection of 100,000 images relating to scientific, medical, technological and space themes. Of interest to geographers will be images relating to earth and environment, geology and fossils, mapping and cartography, industry (energy and mining), industry (manufacturing and commerce), pollution, and transport.

Statistics New Zealand Digital Boundaries
Digital Boundaries are electronic files of the various geographic boundaries (in digitised form) for use in mapping and geographic information systems (GIS). Meshblock boundaries, and boundaries of larger areas, are available digitally.

Statistics New Zealand Interactive Boundary Maps
Display census data at meshblock scale in online maps

Strange Maps
A blog devoted to strange (and often entertaining) maps.

Subway maps
A series of maps showing subway/metro routes. Both surface and underground routes are included. World-wide coverage.

Technical Advisory Service for Images
This site offers advice and guidance for managing both small and large scale digitisation projects, creating digital images (including raster, vector and animated formats), delivering digital images to users, and using digital images to support teaching, learning and research.

Topo250 and Topo50 Downloads
The Topo250 and Topo50 series provide the basic current topographic coverage for New Zealand. Maps can be downloaded as image files (TIFF and GeoTIFF formats) and data files (Shape and IFF formats). Hard copies of each sheet can be found in the Map Room, Level M, of the General Library.

TopoZone
The Web's first interactive topo map of the entire United States, developed in association with the USGS. The site contains every USGS 1:100,000, 1:25,000, and 1:24,000 scale map for the entire United States.

Tracks.org.nz
Mountain bike and running tracks in New Zealand.

United Nations Cartographic Section

United States Geological Survey - Library
The Library pages include links to maps and map sites. see selected map bookmarks. The maps imaging and publications pages provide access to current and historical, geological and topographic maps, aerial photographs and satellite imagery.

Wikimedia Commons Atlas of the World
The Wikimedia Commons Atlas of the World is an organized and commented collection of geographical, political and historical maps available at Wikimedia Commons. The main page is therefore the portal to maps and cartography on Wikimedia. That page contains links to entries by country, continent and by topic as well as general notes and references.

Wises Street Finder
By entering street, suburb, and town or city details, a map can be drawn of that immediate neighbourhood.

Worldmapper
Worldmapper is a collection of world maps, where territories are re-sized on each map according to the subject of interest (in the form of a cartogram). Topics covered relate to communications and transport, population, goods, services and manufacturing, and social, economic and environmental issues.

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Maps, historical

Albert Park Tunnels
A clickable map of Albert Park showing the tunnels underneath it. This site also includes diagrams showing tunnel profiles, baffles (designed to act as shock absorbers against outside blasts), and photographs of the entrances to the tunnels.

AMS Index Maps
Indexes to a wide variety of AMS Series US Army Map Service and Great Britain War Office Geographical Section topographical map series covering various parts of the world. Sheet boundaries and sheet numbers are shown for each series.

Army Map Service Topographic Map Series
Scans of various AMS map series, mostly at a scale of 1:250,000, along with various city plans. Good coverage for eastern Asia, including China. From the University of Texas-Castaneda Library Map Collection.

Auckland Libraries Maps Online
Historic Auckland maps

Brian Hooker's Web Pages
Material relating to the early cartography of New Zealand, including Abel Tasman's Journal, a dictionary of New Zealand map makers and surveyors, an account of early non-British surveys in New Zealand waters, and a bibliography of Brian Hooker's publications.

British History Online
British History Online is the digital library of core medieval and early modern sources for British history from the Institute of Historical Research (University of London) and the History of Parliament Trust. Amongst the links are two relating to early maps:

  • Ordnance Survey 1:10,560 provides a link to the Great Britain Ordnance Survey 1:10,560 series. Access to the maps is by either index sheets (for England, Wales, and Scotland) or by entering a place name into a search box.
  • Maps and plans (historic, pre-1800) provides a link to five early plans of London, published between 1550 and 1690.

Charting the Nation. Maps of Scotland and associated archives 1550-1740
The Charting the Nation image collection includes a wide variety of single maps and maps in atlases and other bound books, together with important manuscript and printed texts relating to the geography and mapping of Scotland from 1550 to 1740 and beyond. The site contains invaluable source materials for the study of the history of cartography, architectural history, genealogy, military history, environmental history and archaeology, amongst many other disciplines.

Charts and Maps, National Maritime Museum
A National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London, site that contains 500 images and descriptions of sea charts and maps from its loose sheet collections, including a substantial proportion of manuscripts which have never before been published, plus a further 600 items selected from the Museum's bound manuscripts. These include isolarii by Buondelmonti, Sonetti and Millo; portolan atlases by Martines, Agnese, Oliva, Sanches, Freducci, Dousaigo and anonymous Portuguese, French and Italian chartmakers; the South Seas waggoners of Ringrose and Hack, selections from the Dartmouth Collection of 16th and 17th century surveys of Ireland, the Channel Islands, Portsmouth and Tangier; Dummer's 17th-century survey of English ports, an early 18th century survey of French ports and de Surville's late 18th century survey of ports in Spanish America.

COPAC Map Search
COPAC is a union catalogue providing free access to the merged catalogues of 22 of the largest university research libraries in the UK and Ireland plus the British Library. Map records in these libraries can be searched by filling in details on a search screen, and clicking the search button. Click on "Tag record", then on the download button, to email records to yourself.

DigitalNZ
An initiative that aims to make New Zealand digital content easy to find, share and use. This includes content from government departments, publicly funded organisations, the private sector, and community groups.

Guide to Finding New Zealand Historical Maps (PDF)
A pamphlet prepared by Brian Marshall, University of Auckland Geography and Environmental Science Subject Librarian, 1973-2010, on finding New Zealand historical maps, with particular reference to University of Auckland resources.

Historical Atlas of Sydney
The Historical Atlas provides access to maps of the City of Sydney from different periods of the City's history. The maps sheets can be downloaded as PDF files, and panned and zoomed to pick up smaller areas and close-up details.

Images of Early Maps on the Web
A systematic listing of websites containing early map images. Arrangement is primarily geographical, by world and then by continent. Several hundred links are provided to numerous sites which have images of early maps available. "Images of early maps on the web" is the companion to "Web articles and commentaries on specific topics in the History of Cartography", and both form part of the "Map History" site.

Japanese Historical Maps
The Japanese Historical Map Collection contains about 2,300 early maps of Japan and the World. The collection was acquired by the University of California from the Mitsui family in 1949, and is housed on the Berkeley campus in the East Asian Library. Represented in this online collection are over 600 images of maps and books from this Collection.

Map Collections in Australia: a Directory
Electronic access to information on map collections in Australia. Web catalogues are accessible for some collections.

Map History / History of Cartography
Early maps, and the resources and activities associated with them, form the subject of over 100 'pages' on this site. Information about old maps can be found here, directly or indirectly. You will find comment and guidance, and links to hundreds of other sites - selected for relevance and quality.

MapForum.com
This is an online magazine intended to promote interest in and study of old maps, catering for the novice and the experienced collector by providing articles at all levels of interest and expertise.

Maps and Diagrams from Selected Volumes of the Official Histories of New Zealand in World War II
The official histories of New Zealand's involvement in World War II were published by the Department of Internal Affairs some time ago, and are now available online. A selection of nearly 100 maps, relating to Prisoners of War, the Relief of Tobruk, the Battle for Egypt, the 28th (Maori) Battalion, and The Pacific, are now grouped together for easy access.

Maps from the National Library of Scotland's Collections
Scanned images are arranged in four categories: Maps of Scotland 1560-1928; Pont's Maps of Scotland c.1583-c.1596; 18th century military maps of Scotland; and Ordnance Survey Scottish town plans 1847-1895.

Maps of Macau
A collection of 16 maps of Macau, developed by the American Memory Project at the Library of Congress. The maps range from a 1655 Dutch map of the coastline around Macau to a 1991 Portuguese map showing the three areas that constitute the Territory of Macau.

Mitteleuropa 1:200,000 Map Series
An index map for the 1:200,000 Mitteleuropa map series published in Vienna between 1877 and 1914, enabling the user to view many of the 776 sheets in this series covering the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The sheets detail the physical and cultural landscape of the Empire. The article Building a Globally Distributed Historical Sheet Map Set of Austro-Hungarian Topographic Maps, 1877-1914, by Patrick McGlamery, details how the online version was constructed.

National Geographic Magazine Maps
A digital collection of maps published as supplements to the National Geographic Magazine. Some of the maps are more than 100 years old.

National Library of New Zealand Map Collection
The Alexander Turnbull Library has linked a number of historical New Zealand maps from its collections to the National Library Catalogue . The maps and charts, dated from 1587 to the 1980s, are mostly of the Pacific and New Zealand and cover many subjects, including land wars, land ownership, settlement and exploration. Through ongoing digitisation programs and projects, the collection will grow over time and provide improved access to the Turnbull’s 60,000 plus map collection. The online maps are available in low-resolution JPEG files at this stage.
To access a map, follow these steps: Log on to the National Library Catalogue by clicking on the link above.  
Put the words MapColl digital in the search box.
Scroll down to Call number (begins with) in the box marked ‘Using’.
Click the Search button. This will bring up all the map records. Click on a record, go to the bottom of the page and click on Link to digital copy. This will bring up a picture of the map.

NZMS 13 cadastral maps 1inch to the mile / 1:63, 360 1914-1961
This series is being digitized and made available through the National Digital Heritage Archive. To find them go to the National Library of New Zealand catalogue, set quick limits to Map and search for <NZMS 13 online>. Many of the maps show Maori land blocks.

NZMS 17 / 271 Street Maps
A listing of all the editions of the New Zealand street maps published by the Department of Lands and Survey and the Department of Survey and Land Information, in their NZMS 17 and NZMS 271 series.

Old maps online
Portal to historic maps from around the world

Pacific Historical maps

Sixteenth to Twentieth Century Maps of Africa
Digital copies of 113 maps of Africa, held in the library collection at Northwestern University, Illinois, with accompanying text.

South East Asian (Vietnam) War
A complete 1:250,000 topographical coverage of Indo China and eastern Thailand has been scanned and made available. The maps are dated 1966.

US Army Map Service and Gt. Brit. War Office Maps
Index maps are provided for the (mostly) topographical maps published by the US Army Map Service and the Great Britain Geographical Section of the General Staff, War Office. The scanned images are of those held by the University of California-Santa Barbara Map & Imagery Laboratory, and have been made into Adobe PDF files. Arrangement is by series number. The University of Auckland's Map Room has some of these series of maps.

University of Chicago Library Map Collection
Scanned maps from the University of Chicago Library Map Collection, mostly of Chicago, but there are also late 19th century and early 20th century city plans from Asia and Latin America.

V.C. Browne Aerial Photograph Collection
The V.C. Browne and Son NZ Aerial Photograph Collection contains approximately 26,000 images. The collection spans a period of over 50 years, commencing in the early 1930s through to the late 1970s. The majority of the images it contains are black and white aerial photographs w hich provide a unique perspective from which to view the evolution of society in New Zealand. The photographs are the work of V.C. Browne (Victor) and his son W.K. Browne (Bill). Although most photographs are focused upon the New Zealand South Island , and the Canterbury region in particular, the collection also covers most New Zealand cities and major towns.

 

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Physical Geography

 

A Dictionary of Earth Sciences
Edited by Ailsa Allaby and Michael Allaby, this dictionary contains 6,000 entries providing coverage of topics including climatology, economic geology, geochemistry, oceanography, palaeontology, petrology, and volcanology. There are entries on planetary science, remote sensing, statistics, and sequence stratigraphy, wind strength scales, material, temporal, and chronostratigraphic units, geologic, lunar, and Martian time scales.

Encyclopedia of Earth
The Encyclopedia of Earth is an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society. The Encyclopedia is a free, fully searchable collection of articles written by scholars, professionals, educators, and experts who collaborate and review each other's work. The articles are written in non-technical language and will be useful to students, educators, scholars, professionals, as well as to the general public.

Geoguide
Geoguide is a an interdisciplinary site from Lower Saxony State and the University Library, Gottingen, Germany including the following categories: earth sciences general, geology, paleontology, mineralogy-crystallography, geochemistry, petrology, mineral deposits, geophysics, geodesy, extraterrestrial research, meteorology and climatology, hydrology, oceanography, soil science, geography and cartography. Within each category, resources are presented in tabular form with keywords, appropriate user levels, and evaluative ratings about contents, clarity, index, and links included.

Geomorphology from Space
An out of print 1986 NASA publication edited by Nicholas M. Short, Sr. and Robert W. Blair, Jr. designed for use by the remote sensing science and educational communities to study landforms and landscapes. The core of this book is a gallery of space imagery consisting of 237 plates, each treating a geographic region where a particular landform theme is exemplified. Commentary, photographs, locator maps, and sometimes a geologic map accompany each plate.

Glossary of Terms for Physical Geography
This glossary is from The Fundamentals of Physical Geography website, designed to be a FREE online textbook for University and College students studying introductory Physical Geography, available from Okanagan University College.

Hydrology Thesis Database
A database of New Zealand hydrological theses, provided by the New Zealand Hydrological Society. Searching is by keyword, and full abstracts are available. Includes theses relating to all parts of the hydrological cycle.

New Zealand Tide Graph
The tide height is shown for all times over a 24-hour period. The height is relative to Chart Datum which is the zero depth for marine charts.

New Zealand Tide Information
Includes an introduction to tides, how to use the tide tables, port tides, tidal streams, and sea level data.

Social Anthropology and Human Geography
This is the British Academy's directory of online resources in the humanities and social sciences. It is designed as an entry point to available resources for those working in higher education and research. Links lead to a number of sites relating to earth science resources, environmental information, El Nino/Southern Oscillation information, the UK census, a database of indigenous knowledge and practices, an ethnographic atlas, a GIS dictionary, and other similar resources.

Tide Forecaster (New Zealand) 
Use this utility to forecast high and low tides anywhere in open coastal and ocean waters around New Zealand for up to 28 days. Select where and when the tide forecast is required then press the "Calculate" button. The Tide Forecaster uses a hydrodynamic tidal model developed by NIWA and with assistance from LINZ. For most places the forecasts of high and low tides will be accurate within 0.1 m in height and 5 minutes in time.

United States Geological Survey
Website of the United States Geological Survey with a large amount of information at your disposal. Use the resources of the USGS library through this site or browse from a list of topics already listed. Covers not only the United States but international information as well. A very good research tool.

Volcanoes of Auckland
This site was part of the old Auckland Regional Councilís GIS in Schools project. The site gives information on Auckland's volcanoes and a virtual tour of each. The tour requires Cosmo Player software to be loaded.

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Pacific environment

Center for Ocean Solutions Pacific Ocean Library
The Center for Ocean Solutions (COS) Pacific Ocean Library provides access to scientific articles, reports, government publications and gray literature on the Pacific Ocean’s greatest threats, environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and potential solutions for the region.

Pacific Climate Change Science Program
The PCCSP is part of the Australian Government's commitment through the International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (ICCAI) to meet high priority climate change adaptation needs in vulnerable countries in the Asia-Pacific region, especially the Pacific island countries and East Timor. The PCCSP aims to strengthen the capacity of 15 countries in the region to participate in and undertake climate change science research

Place Names & Gazetteers

Canadian Geographical Names
This site gives access to nearly 320,000 currently approved Canadian geographical names stored on the Canadian Geographical Names Data Base (CGNDB). These names are authorized by the Geographical Names Board of Canada. In addition, there is access to 31,000 formerly approved names of historical interest, and 3,500 names of undersea features. The province or territory in which the place is located is given, along with feature type, regional location, latitude and longitude, and a map.

Europe: forms of place names
Provides a listing of European place names in a variety of languages.

Gazetteer for Scotland
A database featuring details of towns, villages, bens and glens. The gazetteer includes tourist attractions, industries and historic sites, together with histories of family names and biographies of famous Scottish people. The gazetteer is being developed by the Department of Geography at the University of Edinburgh and the Royal Scottish Geographical Society.

Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature
Developed by the Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature of the International Astronomical Union, this is a gazetteer of named features on the planets other than Earth.

Geographic Names Information System : Antarctica
Searchable database contains geographic names in Antarctica which are approved by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names for use by the Federal Government.

Geographic Names Information System : United States and Territories
Searchable database contains information about almost 2 million physical and cultural geographic features in the United States.

GEOnet Names Server (GNS)
Provides access to the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency's database of foreign (to the United States) geographic feature names.

Geoscience Australia Place Name Search
Searches for Australian place names using the Gazetteer of Australia 2004 Release data. The information provided includes a feature code, latitude and longitude, eastings and northings, and the postcode. It is also possible to enter two place names to work out the distance between them.

Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
Contains nearly 1 million place names representing approximately 900,000 places. The thesaurus is composed of names and other information contributed by several Getty projects, including the Bibliography of the History of Art (BHA), the Foundation for Documents of Architecture (FDA), the Getty Center Photo Study Collection (GCPS), and the Getty Information Institute’s Vocabulary Program (VP).

Index of Maori Names
This index is from an unpublished manuscript compiled about 1925 by the missionary Rev. Henry James Fletcher (1868-1933). In its original form it was 987 pages long, a vast index of Maori names referred to in books and journals, including the names of boundaries, Maori individuals, canoes, trees, landmarks and geographical locations. Hosted by the University of Waikato Library.

JewishGen Shtetl Seeker
Shtetl Seeker is a searchable database that provides information on the location of populated places in Eastern Europe, many of which no longer exist. Either search for towns in Central and Eastern Europe, using exact spelling or the Daitch-Mokotoff Soundex system. This search will display latitude and longitude for each location, the distance/direction from the country's capital city, and a link to a map; or, obtain a list all of the towns within a certain distance of a given latitude / longitude coordinates. (You may find these coordinates using the above town search). 

National Gazetteer of Wales
Includes a place names index, a map of Wales, descriptions of the 13 counties, a guide to the various administrative bodies and areas of Wales (including maps), and full postal addresses of every street in Wales. 

New Zealand Geographic Place-Names - Find Names and Archived Database
Comprehensive listing of New Zealand place-names, which includes features named on the various topographic map series and some historical names. It lists the name, a description, and New Zealand Map Grid coordinate references. Includes the New Zealand Geographic Place Names Database (Archived) - over 40,000 entries are available in this version of the database covering the North Island, the South Island and Stewart Island. Note: you will not find every geographic feature listed; only those names approved by the New Zealand Geographic Board and shown on Land Information New Zealand (and its predecessors) maps.

PCGN - Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use
The UK Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British official use (PCGN) has useful links to placenames databases for numerous countries, and df files to download regarding romanisation of non-latin scripts.

Place Name Servers on the Internet 
Links to internet resources that provide information on place names in the United States, the world, and for individual countries.

U.S. Gazetteer
This gazetteer is used to identify places to view with the Tiger Map Server and obtain census data from the 1990 Census Lookup server. You can search for places, counties or MCDs by entering the name and state abbreviation (optional), or 5-digit zip code.
Note : produces user defined maps.

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Political Geography & Country or Regional Studies

Asia Society: Policy & Politics
Includes news and discussion about the enviornment, governance, social issues and strategic challenges in the Asia region.

BBC Country profiles
Full profiles provide an instant guide to history, politics and economic background of countries and territories, and background on key institutions. They also include audio and video clips from BBC archives.

Borderbase
Borderbase is a quick reference to international boundaries and tripoints on the internet and includes photos, facts, links and current news.

Country Studies
A continuing series of books prepared by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. This online series presently contains studies of 100 countries. Most books in the series deal with a particular foreign country, describing and analyzing its political, economic, social, and national security systems and institutions, and examining the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors.

Electorate Profiles (NZ)
Electorate profiles for each of the seven Maori electorates and 63 general electorates in New Zealand are published here. Electorate profiles are produced by the Parliamentary Library. Each profile includes election results, statistics about people, households and industries, and maps.

Footnotes to History
This work provides an overview of ephemeral states, micronations, secessionist states, and various other kinds of country, from Maryland in Africa to the Republic of West Florida to the Centro-Caspian Dictatorship. Click on Contents to go to the text, arranged alphabetically by political entity.

Governments on the WWW
Comprehensive database of governmental institutions: parliaments, ministries, offices, law courts, embassies, city councils, public broadcasting corporations, central banks, multi-governmental institutions etc. Includes also political parties. Contains more than 17,000 entries from more than 220 countries and territories. Note: last updated in 2002.

InfoNation
Allows you to view and compare the most up-to-date statistical data for the Member States of the United Nations.

IBRU Boundary News Archive
The database contains over 10,000 boundary-related reports from a wide range of news sources around the world dating from 1991 to approximately six months before the current date. Searching is by simple keywords, which can be the names of countries, places or people, or activities (e.g. smuggling, migration). Searches may be restricted to a specific boundary by checking the Search Boundary Field only box before submitting your search.

International Boundary Study
A series of US Department of State publications detailing the international boundaries between a wide variety of countries. Maps showing the demarcations are included along with the explanatory text.

International River Boundaries Database
The IRBD has been compiled by the International Boundaries Research Unit to provide the most accurate information available related to river boundary sections, including their length and definition. Historically, rivers have been a popular choice for boundary makers for a number of reasons, including their potential defensive capability and their presumed clarity on the ground. However, as dynamic natural features the movement of rivers has generated frequent disputes over the position of boundaries that are often understood to require rigidity. In addition, river boundaries are vulnerable to dispute over aspects of water management as well as boundary definition.

Library of Congress Country Studies
A continuing series of books prepared by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress under the Country Studies/Area Handbook Program sponsored by the Department of the Army. This online series presently contains studies of 100 countries. Most books in the series deal with a particular foreign country, describing and analyzing its political, economic, social, and national security systems and institutions, and examining the interrelationships of those systems and the ways they are shaped by cultural factors.

Limits in the Seas
Issued by the Office of Oceans Affairs, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs in the Department of State aims to set forth the basis of national arrangements for the measurement of marine areas by coastal States. Hard copies of many of these reports can be found in the General Library at 341.448 L73

Maritime Space: maritime zones and maritime delimitation
The Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea (DOALOS), Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, has prepared the present website in order to provide comprehensive information on the status of State practice. The site contains the national legislation of coastal States and treaties dealing with the delimitation of maritime boundaries, as made available throughout the years to the United Nations. Whenever possible, the texts are accompanied by illustrative maps. An accompanying table lists by country maritime claims, including territorial seas, contiguous zones, exclusive economic zones and fishery zones.

Pacific Collection, Hamilton Library, University of Hawai'i at Manoa 
This site provides links to a wide range of Pacific internet resources, in a number of subject areas. There are links to the web pages of various academic societies, colleges and universities, NGOs, regional organizations and research centres; Government sites, including official government sites for most Pacific island nations, and tourist organizations; Information resources, including a Fiji tourism bibliography, a Solomon Islands resource page, and basic maps of the Pacific countries; online journals and newsletters; online Pacific newspapers; Regional issues, including coastal management issues, eco-forestry, sustainable development, biodiversity, health, land tenure, natural resources, and women's issues; and statistical information. 

Travelers in the Middle East
The Travelers in the Middle East (TIMEA) is a digital archive that focuses on Western interactions with the Middle East, particularly travels to Egypt during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. TIMEA offers electronic texts such as travel guides, museum catalogues, and travel narratives, photographic and hand-drawn images of Egypt, historical maps, and interactive GIS maps of Egypt and Cyprus.

The World Gazetteer
This site provides statistics about the current population of countries, their administrative divisions, cities and towns. Also shown are images of national flags. Population statistics are based on the most recent census or the latest official estimates wherever possible.

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Pollution and Contaminants

Chronic Arsenic Poisoning : History, Study and Remediation 
Arsenic researchers at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have consolidated information about the worldwide threat posed by excessive arsenic levels in groundwater used as drinking water. The site includes arsenic monitoring data, reports of acute and chronic health effects, online articles, research paper citations, conference proceedings, and advantages and disadvantages of various solutions to the problem.

Atmospheric Chemistry Glossary 
This Glossary is maintained by Chemistry Department of Sam Houston State University, USA. Many of the glossary 
entries have hypertext links to other sites on the Internet.

The Dredging Operations and Environmental Research 
The Dredging Operations and Environmental Research (DOER) Program supports the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Operation and Maintenance Navigation Program. Their research balances the environmental and operational initiatives and endeavors to meet complex engineering, economic, and environmental challenges of dredging and disposal. The website maintains information on each of DOER's focus areas, contaminated sediments, environmental windows, innovative technologies, instrumentation, nearshore/aquatic placement and risk management. There are also links to technical notes and reports. The animations link leads to five computerized animations of different dredging methods.

Environmental Contaminants Encyclopedia
This encyclopedia is intended for those who want to quickly determine the potential impact of the concentration of a certain substance. Search for the substance from 118 environmental contaminants, from Acenaphthene to Zinc.  Each entry contains environmental toxicology benchmarks and general information on about each chemical substance and a separate file in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. The encyclopedia is provided by the US National Parks Service.

ExToxNet
Answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about exposure to toxicants. Search or browse full text newsletters, fact sheets, pesticide information profiles, toxicology information briefs. 

Ozone Depletion Glossary
Written by the  Stratospheric Protection Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Many of the glossary entries have hypertext links to other sites on the Internet.


File last updated : November 12, 2013 .
Comments and suggestions to Laura Armstrong