The chronologies in the following may help to give a
good overview of the history of employment relations in New Zealand:
New Zealand book of events. (1986)
Within this book there is a section on ‘the work
force’ chronicled up to 1985.Topics covered are wages and
conditions, the unions, and strikes and lockouts.
Across the counter: The lives of the working poor in New Zealand.
(1990) Appendix E in this report is a chronology titled ‘A short history of
shop trading hours in New Zealand’.
Bateman New Zealand historical atlas. (1997)
Not a chronology as such. It includes comments,
illustrative maps, graphs and charts on a variety of topics.
Women’s labour force participation in New Zealand : the past 100
Fig.3.2 on p.27 shows the evolution of women’s
labour force participation from 1893 to 1993. Topics chronicled
include key social and economic events, key legislation, non-Maori
and Maori participation, and participation patterns by age.
Haynes P., Oldfield, Y. & Fryer, G. (2006)
New Zealand employment relations.3rd edition.
There is an historical time line from 1842
to 1992 chronicling industrial and legislative events, the state of
the economy, and the years of Labour and non-Labour governments.
Jackson, K.& McRobie A. (2008).Historical & political dictionary of New Zealand 3rd edition
There is a general New Zealand chronology from c.800
Free to work : the liberalisation of New Zealand's labour markets.
Table 2 on pp.8-10 has major reforms and events,
1982-1995. Figure 1 on pp.14-15 graphs New Zealand reforms and
economic performance, 1980-1995 (there are graphs for growth,
inflation, the jobs market, and external balance).
Labour History Project . The Labour History Project (formerly the Trade Union History Project) was founded in 1987 by a number of concerned historians and trade unionists to both encourage and promote trade union history and to attempt to save trade union archives. Links to Union
directories, union histories and biographies.
Hall, E.M. (1999)
Managing New Zealand organisations : principles, practices & issues. 2nd edition
There is a brief overview and history of industrial
relations and legislation from 1894 to 1993 on pp.278-291.
New Zealand journal of employment relations. (previously New Zealand Journal of Industrial Relations)
Each issue has a section called ‘Chronology’ which
outlines and comments on industrial disputes that have occurred
during the previous few months. This journal is available
electronically full text on Business Source Premier from 2004 and full text on ABI/Inform from 1997-2006. Earlier
issues from 1976 are in print in NZ+P (331.10995 N53T)
Boston, J. (1996)
Public management : the New Zealand model.
Appendix 1 is ‘A summary of New Zealand’s public
sector reforms 1984-95’. Topics chronicled include
‘Commercialization, corporatisation and privatisation’, ‘Machinery
of government’, ‘Human resource management’, ‘Financial management’,
‘Expenditure control’, and ‘Local government reforms’.
Sutch. W.B.(1968) Poverty and progress in New Zealand.
There is a chronology from 700 to 1967. Topics
comparatively chronicled are external events, political, economic
trends and events, the wage earner, and welfare, education, civil
Bibliographies contain lists of references to
journal and newspaper articles, books, chapters in books, conference
papers and theses.
industrial relations new zealand periodicals
management new zealand periodicals
trade unions new zealand periodicals
Brosnan, P. (1991).
New Zealand labour and employment research, 1859-1990: A
bibliography of research and research materials.
Arrangement is by type of publication: Statistics;
Official; papers (Reports of royal commissions, commissions of
inquiry); Government publications; Books; Chapters in books; Journal
articles; Theses and published conference papers. The section
listing theses could be very useful. Indexes are by keyword, author,
Corliss, P. (2006) Words at work: An annotated bibliography of New Zealand trade union literature
Geare, A. J. (1990) New Zealand industrial relations research, 1973-1988: A
It lists all the research published between 1973 and
1988. Included are journal articles, theses, working papers, books
and reports. Arrangement is by topic.
Roth, B. (1964).
Labour legislation in New Zealand: A bibliography.
Dated now but useful for historical research.
Roth, B. (1977).
New Zealand trade unions: A bibliography.
Sayers, J. (1991).
Employment equity in New Zealand: Definitions and a bibliography.
As well as a bibliography this book also has
discussion of employment equity and gives an historical
backgrounding to the issue.
Twenty-one years of personnel/human resource management and
industrial relations research in New Zealand: A bibliography,
[NZP 016.331 S56]. In the Introduction the author states ' This bibliography builds upon
and extends the previous work by Geare (1988) and Thompson and
Sibbald (1990)' [Geare, A. J. New Zealand industrial relations
research, 1973-1988 : a bibliography., Thompson, V. Personnel management in New Zealand : a bibliography, 1941-1989.]
Arrangement is by topic with 'entries included only those of an
academic nature'. Topics include collective bargaining,
remuneration, disputes resolution, equal employment opportunities,
women and work, pay equity, disabilities, ethnic and racial issues,
training and development, health and welfare.
Walsh, P. (1994) Trade unions, work and society : the centenary of the arbitration system
Some key current texts on NZ employment relations
Parker, J. (ed.). (2013). The big issues in employment: HR management and employment relations in New Zealand. Auckland: CCH New Zealand.
Deeks, J. & Rasmussen, E. (2009), Employment relations in New Zealand.
Geare, A.& Edgar, F.J.(2007) Employment relations. 5th ed
Haynes, P., Oldfield, Y. & Fryer, G. (2006) New Zealand employment relations.3rd ed
Rasmussen, E. (ed.),(2004) Employment relationships: New Zealand's Employment Relations Act
Rasmussen, E. (ed) (2010) Employment relationships: Workers, unions and employers in New Zealand
Use Library Search to find books held in the University of Auckland Library. Most
subject searches work well by adding a geographic location after the
topic as the list of following examples indicates. However some
topics can be further subdivided before adding the geographic
qualifier eg collective bargaining teachers new zealand. There may
also be a subject qualifier such as history or bibliography - eg
industrial relations new zealand history, labor laws and legislation
new zealand bibliography Note the American spelling of labor and
organization in subject headings.
Some helpful subject headings are:
affirmative action programs new zealand
arbitration industrial new zealand
collective bargaining new zealand
collective labor agreements new zealand
discrimination in employment new zealand
full employment policies new zealand
grievance procedures new zealand
industrial organization new zealand
- industrial management new zealand
- industrial policy new zealand
- industrial relations new zealand
- industrial safety new zealand
- labor contract new zealand
- labor disputes new zealand
- labor economics new zealand
- labor laws and legislation new zealand
- labor movement new zealand
- labor policy new zealand
- labor supply government policy new zealand
- labor unions new zealand
- management new zealand
- manpower policy new zealand
- new zealand federation of labour
- new zealand waterfront strike 1951
- organizational change new zealand
- personnel management new zealand
- sex discrimination in employment new zealand
- strikes and lockouts law and legislation new zealand
- strikes and lockouts new zealand
- unemployment government policy new zealand
- waihi strike 1912
- women maori employment
- women employment new zealand
- work environment new zealand
- working class new zealand
Keyword searching is very
useful particularly if you do not know the exact structure of
subject headings. Note that legislation
eg employment contracts act is difficult to search using a subject
search. It is advisable when searching for information about
legislation to do a keyword search selecting the advanced search interface.
Individual articles in journals and newspapers are
not listed separately on the catalogue. Search various special indexes or look at
bibliographies in other published works on the subject. The
databases and indexes listed below are the most useful for finding
references to articles in this field. Please note: it is advisable
to search on all three databases - Index New Zealand (INNZ);
Newztext Plus; Australia New Zealand Reference Centre. Some journals/magazines are indexed on one
database and not on the others. Searching all three databases will
give more comprehensive results.
Major New Zealand databases and indexes
Australia New Zealand Reference Centre
A full-text collection from EBSCO Publishing, combining content from Australian, New Zealand and overseas magazines, academic journals, newspapers, newswires and reference books.
Index New Zealand :INNZ 1987-
Indexes articles in New Zealand
journals (including 'academic' journals) and some newspapers.
It is the key New Zealand database for social sciences, arts,
humanities and general interest material.
Index to New Zealand periodicals 1941-1986
The precursor of INNZ, the Index to New Zealand
periodicals indexes only journals. It covers the years 1941-1986 and
is kept on the NZP Quick Reference shelves Ground Floor General
This is a database of New Zealand sourced
information. It has the full text of articles from major NZ daily
newspapers, in some cases back to 1993, and the full text of some NZ magazines. It does not cover ‘academic’ journals. Be
aware that the newspaper articles are those to which the newspaper
publisher has the copyright. This means syndicated articles, for
example from the NZPA and Reuters, are excluded. It also includes Newzindex which is an index to a range of New Zealand publications (but not academic journals).
Other databases you could search include
ABI/Inform, AGIS Plus Text,
Proquest Social Sciences Journals,
APAIS, Academic research library ,
and Expanded Academic They are international databases but are
useful to search because they index articles about New Zealand
published in international journals. When searching international
databases, searches often need to be qualified by typing the word
zealand as part of the search strategy.
The key NZ journal to look at for industrial relations
The New Zealand journal of employment relations. (Full text on Business Source Premier back to 2004, earlier issues back to 1997are on ABI/Inform). This journal is also indexed by Index New Zealand: INNZ.
Historically significant journals include:
The Maoriland worker : a journal of industrial unionism, socialism &
politics. Launched by the Shearers’ Union in 1910. The
editor was Ettie Rout. Contributors included the New Zealand
Federation of Labour (1910-1913), the United Federation of Labor,
the Social Democratic Party (New Zealand) and the New Zealand Labour
Party. In association with this journal see
: Tolerton, Jane. ‘’The recording angel’ or a ‘Maoriland worker’?
Ettie Rout and the Labour Movement, 1907-15’ in
Culture and the Labour Movement : essays in New Zealand labour
The Maoriland worker was continued by :
The New Zealand worker (not held at
the University of Auckland) which was continued by:
Began with Oct. 9, 1935 issue; ceased with Dec. 23,
1959 issue. "Official organ of the N.Z. labour movement." Good for
obituaries as well as historical information.
Journal of the Department of Labour
/ Dept. of Labour and Employment.
For selected listings of employment-related and trade union journals held in the Library do a Subject search on the catalogue.
Began 1893; ceased 1917. Full of interesting
information including a roundup of conditions of employment and
trade in the regions, court cases, industrial accidents, lists of
registered barmaids, and persons assisted by the Department of
For a general listing of trade union journals see:
Roth, Bert. New Zealand trade unions : a bibliography 2nd ed., rev. 1977.[NZP 016. 331880995 R84 1977]. There is an Index
to journals at the back of the book.
See also databases and internet resources on the New Zealand Legal Resources page
Government publications are well worth investigating
as they can provide a wealth of information. Depending on the type
of publication, they can give verbatim discussion on an issue as
debated in Parliament allowing you to understand the various
opinions on a topic, and they can inform as to reasons behind policy
and legislative decisions. The following are some of the main
Government publications helpful for employment relations.
Papers presented are documents presented to the House by Ministers or the Speaker. They include annual reports, statements of intent, Budget documents, Law Commission, Auditor-General, and Commissions of Inquiry reports, international treaties, and regulations.
Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 1858-
[NZP 328.95 N56a].
The AJHRs are published annually and are a record of
papers tabled in Parliament including annual reports of government
departments and select committees, and the reports of royal
commissions and committees of inquiry. Papers in the AJHRs are
classified under a system of “shoulder numbers” for example the
annual report of the Department of Labour has a shoulder number G1.
Indexes are at the end of each bound volume.
A handy publication to use in conjunction with
the AJHRs is:
A checklist: New Zealand royal commissions, commissions and
committees of inquiry, 1864-1981.
This publication lists commissions in chronological
order. There is also a Chairman index and a subject index. The
shoulder number is given for reports that are in the AJHR. This
publication lists reports up to and including 1981. See also:
Understanding Aotearoa / New Zealand: historical statistics /
David Thorns & Charles Sedgwick.
Appendix B on page 186 lists in chronological order
Royal Commissions from 1864 to 1995. Appendix C on page 188 lists in
chronological order Commissions and Committees of Inquiry from 1869
For reports since then consult the indexes in the
back of the bound volumes to the AJHR (or look at the Index shelved
after the last box of current AJHRs). Suggested point of entry is
“Royal commissions, committees and special reports”. Reports and
proceedings of Select Committees are usually in the I section of the
A selection of commission reports in the AJHR
- Royal commission to enquire into the working of
the Employment of Females Act. AJHR 1878 H2
- Royal commission into certain relations between
employers of certain kinds of labour and persons employed therein.
‘Sweating commission.’. AJHR 1890 H5
- Workers compensation commission report. AJHR
1930. H 11A
- Equal pay. AJHR 1971 H54 (and progress report
AJHR 1976 G1A)
- Royal commission on Social policy. AJHR 1987-90
H2 (NB The April Report is also shelved at NZP 309.195 N536). See
especially vol. 3 pt. 1 ‘Work’.
- Effects of the Employment Contracts Act 1991 on
the New Zealand labour market. AJHR 1991-93 I4B
- Report on the inquiry into the effects of the
Employment Contracts Act 1991 on the New Zealand labour market. AJHR
- Labour Committee. Report on the Employment
Contracts Bill. AJHR 1991-93. I9A
Additional publications of reports not found in the
Compensation for personal injury in New Zealand: Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry. 1967.
Salary and wage fixing procedures in the New Zealand State Services
1972: Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry.
Across the counter: The lives of the working poor in New Zealand
1990 : report of the Second New Zealand Sweating Commission.
Includes sections on trends in shop trading hours,
legislation affecting shop workers, low pay, health and safety,
management practices, and employer hostility to the Unions.
New Zealand parliamentary debates. (online
from 1987 onwards.)
These are often referred to as ‘Hansard’. They are a
record of all speeches made in Parliament, and are an invaluable
source for discussion on legislation. Particularly informative are
the debates associated with the second reading of a Bill where the
viewpoints of all parties are aired and the debate can be
substantial. There are sessional indexes to Hansard. To find the
debate associated with a piece of legislation search in the
‘Sessional index’ in the last volume of each Session (usually
coincides with a calendar year). Within the BILLS section of the
Index look under the title of the bill to find the page where the
debates appear. For example, to follow debate on Employment
Contracts through Parliament before it was passed as an Act look up
the amalgamated index at the back of vol.521. Look under BILLS, then
under the subheading Employment contracts. Page references are given
for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd readings. For debate other than that
associated with a Bill, suggested points of entry within the Index
are under the name of a politician or under a broad topic heading.
Statutes of New Zealand.
Online from 1992. The New Zealand and Pacific Collection contains a
print copy of every Act of Parliament ever passed in New Zealand. They are
bound together in volumes each year. A wall chart listing
legislation in force is on the end of the stack beginning NZP
345.209969-349.925. This chart will either give you an RS and a
number or just a number. For RS look in the Reprinted Statutes
shelved at NZP 346.3 N56re.
There are a selection of titles in the New Zealand
and Pacific Collection. However, more complete and up-to-date
information sources are in the Davis Law Library (all currently
enrolled University of Auckland students can use this library).
Awards, recommendations, agreements, orders,
made under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act, the
Apprentices Act, and the Labour Disputes Investigation Act, and
other relevant acts.
[NZP Storage 331.155 N532 vol.3 (1901/02)-v.81,
1981. Vol.82, 1982 to v.91, 1991 on the open shelves at NZP 331.155
N532]. Ceased publication after the passing of the Employment
Contracts Act. There have been slight variations of title over the
years but it is commonly called the Book of awards. Content
varies. To 1975 it also included Arbitration Court decisions, and
selected decisions of industrial tribunals and industrial matters
judged in the Court of Appeal. Awards and agreements only were
listed from 1975 to 1987. From 1987 to 1991 only awards and
apprenticeship orders were listed.
New Zealand. Arbitration Court. Decisions of
the Court of Arbitration under the Workers' Compensation for
Accident Act, 1900. [NZP 331.825 N532 1901/02; 1903] [DAVIS
LAW LIBRARY C/NZ Vol. 1 (1900/02)-v. 13 (1914)].
Salmon, John H.
Consolidated digest of
Worker's Compensation cases, being a digest of the cases under the
Workers' Compensation Act reported in volumes I to XIII .
1915. [ NZ Glass Case 331.825 S17].
The New Zealand law reports : cases
determined by the Court of Appeal, Supreme Court, and Court of
Arbitration (Workers' Compensation Cases). [NZP 346.4 N53
New Zealand industrial law reports.
[NZP 331.1995 J92]. 1976 to 1990. Title varies. Gives judgments of
the Labour Court and the Court of Appeal. Continued as:
Employment reports of New Zealand.
[DAVIS LAW C/NZ Recent unbound issues are desk
New Zealand employment law cases Vol. 1 (1986/87)-
Search Brookers Online for New Zealand case law , Particularly useful are the resources Employment Cases and Briefcase which indexes New Zealand reported and unreported cases from 1986 onwards.
Linxplus. Hosted by LexisNexis NZ, this database indexes selected New Zealand case law since 1986, with some access to unreported judgments. LinxPlus also indexes legal journal articles and books received by the Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch District Law Society libraries.
For brief summaries of judgments and decisions from 1992-2005 see
ERA info : the report on current industrial relations in New Zealand.
[NZP 331.1160995 C76]. Has brief summaries of Court
of Appeal and Employment Court judgments.
Safeguard: Journal of Occupational Safety and Health, a service
unit of the Department of Health.
For a brief summary of cases relating to accidents
and safety in the workplace see the section ‘From the courts’.
In NZ+P (331.1995 A89b) from 2000 onwards. In storage 1996-1999.
Statistics are located in a separate section on
Floor M. Check also Statistics New Zealand's website especially for
employment and unemployment data. Some key statistical
New Zealand official yearbook. 1893 -
The Yearbook provides an excellent range of summary
statistics plus commentary and overview. The chapter ‘Employment’
includes comment and statistics on labour relations. The 1990
Yearbook (celebrating the sesquicentennial) is also worth a special
look as it has a number of commentaries on conditions last century.
Yearbooks often include special studies on various topics. Topics
relevant to employment relations include:
- Labour in New Zealand (YB) 1894
- Wages and working hours in New Zealand 1919
- Industrial relations - the next ten years and
Labour market statistics.
Annual publication from Statistics New
Zealand which was produced from 1991-2008. This is probably one of the best sources to look at for an
overall picture of the labour market and includes a chapter on
industrial relations. As well as giving tables of data, there is
also some comment and analysis. Print publication shelved at S2/NZ
Some issues available on Statistics New Zealand website - enter "labour market statistics" in the search box.
New Zealand Time Series
This database includes statistical data from the
Household Labour Force Survey and additional employment data.
Look under the heading Labour market. Data can be downloaded in a
variety of spreadsheet formats.
This is a monthly publication. It has a section on
the labour force.
New Zealand social trends : work. (1993)
An excellent one off publication based on data from
the 1991 Census. It looks at paid and unpaid work and at various
characteristics of the workforce eg labour force growth; migration
and the labour force; labour force mobility; employment patterns of
men and women; ethnic differentials in employment; unemployment.
All about women in New Zealand (1993)
Published to commemorate the centenary of women’s
suffrage in New Zealand. The section titled ‘Work’ has statistics
and comment on the past 100 years.
New Zealand now: Women.
Chapter 5 on work includes the top ten occupations
of men and women according to 1996 census data.
Census of population and dwellings. 1871-
The Census gives demographic information including
data on types of industries and occupations people were employed in.
Data for the 1996, 2001, 2006 census is online at Statistics New Zealand's website.
Bloomfield, G. T.(1984) New Zealand : a handbook of historical statistics
A good collection of long time series of data on
topics which include the labour force.
Finding statistics about New Zealand
list of links to web resources and
| Theses and current research
For an overview of labour historians and the
different approaches to labour history over time see:
Martin, John E. ‘Country report: Labour history in
New Zealand’ International labor and working-class history
No. 49, Spring 1996, pp.166-179. [Print copies of this serial are in storage).
Theses completed at the University of Auckland and
submitted to the Library are listed on the catalogue. A guided keyword search including the word ‘thesis’
is useful for locating theses eg
- thesis employment university auckland
- thesis management university auckland
- thesis unions university auckland
- thesis labour university auckland
For a list of theses from other New Zealand
universities up to 1999 see:
Union list of higher degree theses in New Zealand libraries.
library catalogues of other New Zealand universities can be
searched for theses
Also check the NZresearch.org database which is a gateway to open-access research documents, such as theses, produced at universities, polytechnics, and other research institutions in New Zealand.
For more information on locating theses consult the library guide to theses and dissertations.
The Dictionary of New Zealand biography.
[NZ & P Quick Ref. 920.095 D55].
Main access is by person but each volume also has a
categories index for accessing people under broad categories. For
example labour reformers and trade unionists are listed under the
category ‘Reform and protest’.
- Volume 1 1769-1869
- Volume 2 1870-1900
- Volume 3 1901-1920
- Volume 4 1921-1940
- Volume 5 1941-1960
The Book of New Zealand women = Ko kui ma te kaupapa. (1991)
Does not include women who are still living. However
the time span is very broad. Main access is by person. There is also
a subject index eg ‘Commerce’, ‘Labour’, ‘Service occupations’,
‘Trades’ and ‘Women’s organisations’. Each biography has a list of
Howe, K. R.(1991) Singer in a songless land : a life of Edward Tregear, 1846-1931.
Edward Tregear was the Secretary of the Department
of Labour at a time when New Zealand was considered to have the
world’s most ‘advanced’ labour legislation.
Tolerton, J. (1992) Ettie : a life of Ettie Rout.
Includes a chapter ‘The Queen of the Maoriland
Harbridge, R. & Thickett, G (2002)
A sourcebook of New Zealand trade unions and employee organisations
Also includes comment on legislative change (1894,
1987, 1991) and unions and union membership. Lists ‘union
obituaries’ ie unions who have merged or ceased.
New Zealand Council of Trade Unions.
NZCTU directory. (2010 edition). Find matching union by occupation or
industry. Print copies of NZCTU directories up to 1993 are in the Library. [NZP
Please note that the use of manuscripts and
archives is best suited to the graduate level of research.
Special Collections [Level G] has a number
of archival collections, particularly for trade unions. Search the
Manuscripts and archives database.
There are also guides to archives and manuscript
collections held in other libraries. For exapmle: The Community Archive (includes the National
register of archives and manuscripts in New Zealand.)
"is the Alexander Turnbull Library's catalogue of
unpublished manuscripts and achives, drawings, prints, photographs,
oral history and music. Instructions on how to search the catalogue
are contained in the introduction to TAPUHI."
Macmillan Brown Library at the University of Canterbury has an
excellent Trade Unions Archive.
National Archives of New Zealand.
A guide to Maori sources at National Archives = He pukaki Maori Te
Whare Tohu Tuhituhinga o Aotearoa.
On page 82 there are listed collections about
whakawhiwhi mahi - employment.
New Zealand Federation of Labour (1988).
A guide to the archives of the New Zealand Federation of Labour,
Victoria University of Wellington Library.
A finding list to the papers of Jim Roberts.
Jim Roberts was a major participant in labour
relations. He was Secretary of the Waterside Workers Federation and
the New Zealand Alliance of Labour.
Accident Compensation Corporation. Includes injury
statistics, legislation and annual report
Employment Relations (previously Department of Labour) - part of the Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment. Covers employment, occupational safety and health, immigration.
Many publications and project reports are available in the research papers database which contains research and evaluation work undertaken, published or commissioned by the Department of Labour.
Employment Relations Authority
Human Rights Commission. This
site includes a summary of human rights legislation in New Zealand,
information on the complaints process, sexual harassment and
Minister of Labour
Office of the Privacy Commissioner - includes case notes, media
releases, reports and submissions and information on complying with
Business New Zealand (Employers Federation)
Equal Employment Opportunities Trust
Employers and Manufacturers Association (Northern)
New Zealand Chambers of Commerce
New Zealand Council of Trade Unions.
Includes CTU media
releases, research reports, work newsletter, health & safety update,
information about the CTU plus a link to other trade union and
New Zealand Engineering, Printing and Manufacturing Union
Public Service Association
Centre for Labour, Employment and Work - Victoria University Wellington
Employment Relations Research Group - Auckland University of Technology
The Jobs Letter from the Jobs Research Trust, a not-for-profit
Published from 1994-2006