TOPIC GUIDE : FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

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Books and journal articles  

The Library catalogue

Use Voyager or the new Catalogue interface, to find books on foreign direct investment held in the University of Auckland Library. 

Subject heading searches include:  investments foreign 
Country names can be added to this for a more focused search eg 
investments foreign china  or  investments foreign new zealand

Guided Keyword Searches (tip - select "as a phrase" for these searches): 

  • outward direct investment
  • inward direct investment
  • foreign investment
  • direct investment
  • direct foreign investment
  • foreign ownership
  • country risk
  • Books on this topic are at 332.673 on Level 1 and NZP 332.670995 on Level G
  • Some New Zealand material is also in the Statistics Collection on Level M, at S2/N

Books and theses held elsewhere in NZ

Search Te Puna, the national database. The suggested terms noted for the Voyager catalogue will work in Te Puna as well

Journal and newspapers articles

New Zealand - for journal and newspaper articles with information about FDI in New Zealand search:

International for articles on FDI in other countries, and about FDI and New Zealand (from international journals and often from newspapers and chapters in books) search: 


Investment policy

  • The Business Source Premier database has annual country reviews from CountryWatch. These reviews include a chapter titled "Investment overview". The chapter "Presents an overview of the investment strategies and policy of ... Openness of ... to foreign investments; Currency conversion and transfer policies; Information on performance requirements and incentives, rights of private ownership, and protection of property rights; Amount of political violence, corruption, and crime; International investment agreements, foreign trade zones, and foreign investment statistics; Information on taxation administration and procedure".
    • To find the chapter, structure your search:
      Find "investment overview"   IN TI Title
      AND  ( Type in the name of the country )   IN SO Publication name       eg Canada IN SO Publication name
  • OR use the Business Search Interface button on the Business Source Premier Connect Page and then click on the Country Report button, choosing and drilling down through the various options.
  • The database also has the Political risk yearbook from the PRS Group. For each country there is a chapter on the investment climate. The chapter "Reports on the investment climate in.... openness to foreign investment; capital markets; protection of property rights; political violence; labor conditions".
    • To find the chapter, structure your search:
      Find "investment climate"   IN TI Title
      AND  ( Type in the name of the country )   IN SO Publication name      eg zealand IN SO Publication name
  • Business Monitor Online has information on 155 emerging countries and 20 developed countries. Includes multinationals and involvement in FDI. It also includes risk ratings.
  • The OECD publishes the OECD Reviews of Foreign Direct Investment, this is continued by OECD Investment Policy Reviews ."The Reviews present the results the periodic examinations of foreign direct investment trends and policies in these countries. Policy areas covered include: screening mechanisms, real estate legislation, monopolies and concessions, measures taken for public order and essential security, investment protection, taxation of foreign affiliates and investment incentives."
  • UNCTAD has Investment policy reviews. There are reviews for Algeria, Botswana, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Lesotho, Mauritius, Nepal, Peru, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Uganda, and Uzbekistan

Other FDI information sources 

  • Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS) - a joint service of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the World Bank. More applicable to developing countries. Included are links to Investment climate indicators, occasional papers, country reports, and data sources
  • IPAnet investment promotion network - from the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA's) and World Bank, to enhance Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in developing regions
  • JETRO (Japan External Trade Organisation) annual White Papers on International Trade and Foreign Direct Investment  
  • Leverhulme Centre for Research on Globalisation & Economic Policy: GEP Research papers

Statistics  

The IMF has published Foreign direct investment: trends, data availability, concepts, and recording practices, 2004 [pdf file]. This gives a good overview of who collects what data and the type of FDI data available.


New Zealand data 
There is no single source for comprehensive information on foreign direct investment in New Zealand although the recent country profile in the  World Investment Directory is a starting point.

NOTE: 'Statistics New Zealand and the New Zealand Institute of Economic Research (NZIER) are currently working on the first stages of a foreign affiliate trade statistics (FATS) project. FATS are indicators that help provide a measure of the impacts of internationalisation and globalisation. They will supplement existing statistical areas such as foreign direct investment and international trade in goods and services. The project is being partially funded by the Official Statistics Research and Data Archive Centre (OSRDAC) research programme. The first stage of the project is focusing on a paper to be presented to the New Zealand Association of Economists Conference in June [2005] about inward FATS in New Zealand. Inward FATS are statistics relating to the activities of foreign-owned enterprises in New Zealand and they provide information about the contribution of these firms to the economy. FATS can potentially include a number of indicators relating to foreign affiliates in New Zealand. These include how many foreign affiliate enterprises there are in New Zealand, the number of people they employ, their turnover, and their contribution to exports and imports. ' Expert Data Users News, 22 March 2005. 

Note that Statistics New Zealand do not publish FDI data by economic activity ie industry except for international assets and liabilities data by industry as part of the Balance of payments. Data from 1984 to 1989 on FDI direct investment from abroad: inflows by industrial sector for New Zealand is in the OECD publication International direct investment statistics yearbook  [S1/OECD INV]. The following titles (mostly publications from Statistics New Zealand) between them will probably give the most complete overview.

Statistics New Zealand 

Note: There may be some confusion in interpreting what is portfolio investment and what is technically "foreign direct investment".
See Balance of payments on Statistics New Zealand's website for the most up-to-date data, commentary and methodology. 

  • New Zealand Official Yearbook [S2/NZ STAy]
    Basic data including data by country and some data by industry.

  • Balance of payments [S2/NZ BAL]. 1950-1983/84.
    Includes information on FDI into New Zealand plus New Zealand investment overseas. Tables include 
    • direct investment flows x country and x broad industry group.
    • income from direct investment x country and x industry group.
    Country breakdowns: 
    • 1950 :United Kingdom, Other sterling countries, USA & Canada, OEEC countries,
    • 1959/60 Report: add in ‘Other countries’, OEEC becomes‘EEC’ & ‘Other OEEC countries’
    • 1963/64 Report: Other OEEC countries merged with ‘Other countries’
    • 1973/74 Report: Australia added, ‘Other Sterling countries’ merged with ‘Other countries’ 
  • Balance of payments: concepts, sources and methods 1991. 1992. 2nd ed. [S2/NZ BALc].
    This also includes a chronology of key activities since the deregulation of the foreign exchange market 1984-1992. Table 4 on p.93 gives a time series, 1950-1991 of FDI in New Zealand plus New Zealand direct investment overseas in NZ$.

  • Balance of Payments and international investment position [S2/NZ BALh]
    Quarterly data from June 2000 onwards. New Zealand investment abroad and foreign investment in New Zealand. 
     

  • Business activity statistics [S2/NZ BUSa].
    This annual publication up to and including 2000 from Statistics New Zealand gives data for enterprises and full-time equivalent persons engaged by degree of overseas equity (0-25%, 25-50%, 50 or more%) and by ANZSIC (only for the major division).
    Current data associated with business activity is on the Business characteristics section of the Statistics New Zealand website.

  • Direct investment statistics by country and country groupings  
    There are print copies of data for the March 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999 year shelved at S2/NZ INVd. Annual data for flows of New Zealand direct investment abroad and for foreign direct investment in New Zealand.
    • Current data concerning New Zealand's international investment position is available on the Statistics New Zealand Infoshare website. Under Browse, select Economic Indicators and then International Investment Position to view the range of time series data available. Includes FDI investment in New Zealand by named country plus NZ FDI into named countries.

  • New Zealand's international investment position. 1992-1997. [S2/NZ INVp]. 
    Annual publication. Data is from the balance of payments surveys. There is data and comment both on New Zealand's direct investment abroad plus foreign direct investment in New Zealand. Concentrates on the big picture and usually gives five years of data.  
     
  • International investment position.  
    • 1990 to 1998.  [S2/NZ INVph].   No country data.
    • International Investment Position (as at 31 March 2000). Includes country data.

  • Key statistics [S2/NZ STAm]
    Table 9.09 contains annual balance of payments data over 5 years.

  • New Zealand Time Series
    Under Balance of payments, information is available for stock and  flows by country of FDI abroad and in New Zealand. Countries and country groups include 
    • APEC, ASEAN, EU, OECD
    • Australia
    • Canada
    • China
    • Germany
    • Hong Kong
    • Italy
    • Japan
    • Netherlands
    • Singapore
    • Switzerland
    • Taiwan
    • United Kingdom
    • USA

    Note: the change in methodology for data after 2000. Data time series are variable.
    There is also data for international assets and liabilities by broad industry sector. 

Overseas Investment Office 

Previously called the Overseas Investment Commission. A note of warning: The following publications contain statistics which are a summary of the activities of the Overseas Investment Office. They have a qualitative use such as assessing trends in types of foreign investment, but need to be used with care given the criteria by which the OIC collects information. This is further explained in the introductions of each.

  • Statistics from August 2005 onwards

  • Foreign investment in New Zealand / Overseas Investment Commission releases
    [1979,1981 at NZP 332.11 B93, patchy 1989 onwards at S2/NZ INVf]
    In November 1979 and November 1981 this publication was issued as a supplement to the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin. The 1979 supplement is at the back of the 1979 bound volume of the Bulletin, the 1981 supplement is in the 1981 bound volume of the Bulletin with the November issue (shelved at NZP 332.11 B93). 
    Information given is fairly much standard over time, although the 1979 and 1981 publications do give additional tables based on Balance of Payments statistics. It is possible to get a time series of data from 1965 onwards. Regular tables include:
    • overseas takeovers in New Zealand (country of final ownership x % of overseas ownership x NZ$value)
    • overseas takeover approvals x industry
    • overseas companies commencing business in New Zealand (country of direct ownership x purpose of application x % of overseas ownership) - overseas companies commencing business x industry.
    Country breakdown:
    UK, USA, Australia, Japan, (West Germany 1979, 1981), Hong Kong (1989-), Singapore (1989-), and Other. ‘Other ‘ is broken down into specific countries in separate tables.

  • Overseas Investment Office  - six monthly reports to Parliament [S2/NZ INVfr]
    Includes details of consents by proposed activity (offerer/applicant, seller/target, region, land area, NZ$consideration, net investment $), consents by region, consents by country.

Campaign Against Foreign Control of Aotearoa 

This website includes a monthly analyses of the decisions of the Overseas Investment Office.
  • Foreign control watchdog [NZP 382.0995 W31]
    This is a journal put out by the Campaign against Foreign Control of Aotearoa/New Zealand. As well as articles, it usually details OIC applications and decisions, naming companies and individuals.

International data
The following databases and websites have information for most countries including New Zealand where appropriate.

European Union

IMF 

  • IFS International Financial Statistics
    Basic  time series direct investment data for direct investment abroad and direct investment in reporting country. Also in print format shelved at S1/IMF FINy. Note: there is no data for flows by country.

  • IMF print publications including Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook [S1/IMF BALy] and Government Finance Statistics Yearbook [S1/IMF FINg] will also give annual time series data for direct investment. Note: there is no data for flows by country.

International Finance Corporation  

  • Part of The World Bank Group The Doing Business database "provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 181 economies and selected cities at the subnational and regional level"

KOF 

  • KOF Index of globalization
    From the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich and the Swiss Institute for Business Cycle Research...measures the economic, social and political dimensions of globalization. The index is calculated on the basis of 23 variables (which include FDI) for 123 countries over the period 1970-2003.

OECD 

UNCTAD 

  • Foreign direct investment database  Registration (free of charge) is required'. UNCTAD in 2002 'has launched a Web-based analytical tool for FDI statistics, presenting data on FDI flows and stocks (both inward and outward) for 196 economies for the period 1970-. The figures are presented in an interactive format: users can search the data by region, year and other variables, and design their own tables and charts, which can be saved or exported to other software. The data have been previously published in various issues of the World Investment Report, but have never been available on the Internet. There is no bilateral flow data or industry sector data. There is also data for mergers and acquisitions. No companies are named. There is annual data for numbers of sales and purchases by country and data for M&As by industry.

  • FDI indices has rankings from 1988 onwards for inward and outward performance benchmarking 'inward FDI performance and potential, ranking countries by how they do in attracting inward direct investment'

  • Development and globalization: Facts and Figures - this publication includes a section devoted to FDI data

  • World investment directory  or use alternative entry point 
    It includes information by industry sector and by company name. Older print volumes are at S1/UN INVd [Statistics Collection, Level M, General Library]. The full profile report for New Zealand gives named TNC companies by industry sector and country of head office, plus those NZ companies who have offices offshore. 


  • World investment report / UNCTAD. [338.88 W927 ].  
    Annual 1992 onwards. See country fact sheet on the website. Good statistical annex in each publication. Included are tables of cross-border M&A purchases (with total numbers given but no companies are named), inward/outward FDI stocks as a % of GDP and gross fixed capital formation, and total inward/outward FDI stock flows


  • United Nations Common Database
    Time series data by country. Most of the series are listed under the topic Balance of payments. Data is mostly drawn from the IMF and the World Bank.

World Bank  

  • World development indicators
    Annual time series data. There is FDI data for New Zealand from 1972 onwards. The variables are:
    • Foreign direct investment, net (BoP, current US$) .
    • Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP)
    • Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of gross capital formation)
    • Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$)
    • Gross foreign direct investment (% of GDP
  • Global development finance online
    Annual time series data. The focus is on 'developing' economies.
    • Foreign direct investment, net flows (US$)
    • Profit remittances on FDI (US$)
    In conjunction with the the database see also the commentary for Global development finance (note that it is best to use the download report by chapter  to see which chapter focuses on FDI).

ASEAN

 
Time series

Sector / Bilateral flows
 
  • Eurostat - investment data is under Balance of payments.  Much of the data is from 2001 onwards.
  • OECD International Direct Investment Statistics within OECDiLibrary
    From 1980 onwards where available. 
    • Covers: Australia, Austria, the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
    • No data for bilateral flow between named countries.
    • Uses International Standard Industrial Classification Rev. 3 secondary level classification - the broad headings are primary sector, manufacturing, and service sector. There are additional breakdowns within these 3 sectors.
    • Data types are flow (inflows, outflows) and positions (inward, outward)
  • World investment directory  from UNCTAD
    • Time series starts are variable. However, for many countries there is annual data from about 1988 onwards.
    • Includes information by industry sector, and flows and stocks in the host country by region / economy (ie individual named countries).
    • For countries not yet covered online use the print volumes at S1/UN INVd [Statistics Collection, Level M, General Library]
    • Broad industry headings are primary sector, secondary sector, and tertiary sector. There are further breakdowns within these sectors

Copyright©The University of Auckland Library
Comments and suggestions to: Margaret Tibbles
 Last updated: 28 September, 2011