- Canadian Patent Database
- China Patent and Trademark Office
- Chinese Patent Database
Chinese and international patents.
Patent documents worldwide, containing information about inventions and technical developments from 1836 to today.
- Free patents online (FPO)
US, European and WIPO(PCT) patents and applications.
- Intellectual Property Office of Singapore (IPOS)
The eSearch services provide access to IPOS patents, trademarks and designs applications.
- Industrial Property Digital Library (IPDL)
IP Gazettes of the Japan Patent Office (JPO) and PAJ, a searchable database of Japanese patent applications abstracts and legal status.
- Italian patent database
Italian patent and design model applications.
- Japan Patent Information Organization (JAPIO)
- New Zealand patents
Patents, trade marks, designs and plant variety rights provided by the Intellectual Property Office of New Zealand (IPONZ)
- Patent Fetcher
Downloads of patent PDFs from complete US patents and published patent applications. There is a charge for fast speed downloading of patents.
- Russian/Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO)
- UK Intellectual Property Office
- USPTO patent full-text and image database (PatFT and AppFT)
Full-text patents of United States Patent and Trademark Office issued from 1976 and PDF images for all patents from 1790.
Search for patents on specific subjects:
- DPD (DNA Patent Database)
A collection of DNA-based patents and patent applications issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), with free access to full-text patents and applications.
Books or e-books
A patent is an exclusive legal right granted by a government for a new invention. If patented, no-one else may commercialise the idea for up to 20 years. A patent is valid only in the territory under the jurisdiction of the granting government. Each country grants different kinds of patents and a different period of protection time. For example, in United States, there are three kinds of patents -- utility patents (20 years), design patents (14 years), and plant patents (20 years).
The importance of patents for engineering and science:
In order to be patentable, an invention must be "useful", "novel" and "unobvious" to "a person having ordinary skills in the art to which the said subject matter pertains". Patent documents help people to recognise technological trends at an early stage and give an idea of other research and development programs underway in their field. Patents are an essential source of information for engineering and science staff and students and engineers and scientists when they come to formulate their own R&D programs and later convert them into technology, products and markets. Patents also provide a useful indicator for monitoring market trends.
Patent classification systems
Patent classification systems facilitate the searching and retrieving of patent documents by patent offices and other users. Most of the patent classifications have been designed so that each technical aspect of an invention to which a patent document relates can be classified as a whole. A patent document may contain several technical aspects of an invention, and therefore be allocated several classification symbols. Patent classification systems can be used in combination with other search terms eg, a keyword search, to restrict your search to the relevant subject area. For example, the word "WARN" can be combined with X22 (Automotive Electrics) in DWPI (Derwent World Patents Index) classification system to retrieve only those references on automotive warning devices. A patent classification ensures that all the patents of interest are retrieved when searching.
There are three major systems:
- International Patent Classification (IPC) controlled by the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO). The IPC is used world-wide - the industrial property offices of more than 90 States, four regional offices and the International Bureau of WIPO under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). There are eight sections (A - H) and these sections are further subdivided into classes. Each class consists of the section letter, followed by two digits. For example, H01 is the class designation for Basic Electronic Elements and F17 is the class for Storing or Distributing Gases or Liquids.
- US Patent Classification System is used to classify patents granted by the USPTO. Provides for the storage and retrieval of every US patent document that a patent examiner needs to review when examining patent applications. It is the best system to search for US patents.
- Derwent World Patents Index (DWPI) Classification
WIPO Country Codes
The World Intellectual Property Organisation Country Codes is available on the Derwent World Patents Index (DWPI) website with an alphabetical list by either Country Name or Country Code.
Patent search tips
Generally, there are five ways to search a patent database:
- Search with a patent classification:
- IPC (International Patent Classifications) in almost all the patent databases
- DWPI classification for Derwent World Patents Index databases
- USPTO classification for US patent databases
- Use free text searching or full-text searching where you can search for a keyword everywhere in the text.
- Search for a patent number, eg, US4148102, EP54596, WO9802986, JP6005310.
- Search for patent assignees - the person(s) or corporate body to whom all or limited rights under a patent are legally transferred, such as Smith, John or NASA.
- Search by keyword.
Copies of a patents are available from:
- University subcription databases
- Full text patent databases on the Internet, eg, US patents from USPTO Full Text Patent Database, or European patents from European Full text Patents Databases.
- The Interlibrary Loan Service if it is not available in the University Library.
- Patents and design guide created by Queen's University in Canada.
How to reference patents
Referencing patents using APA 6th style:
- Inventor's surname, initial. (Publication year). Title of the patent. The patent number. Place of publication: Country.
- Chen, C., & Shen, C. (2012). Pedal with sensing device for use in bicycle, in which controlling unit and sensing unit of sensing assembly are being assembled to receiver and treading portion of frame section, respectively. US2014165779-A1. United States.
- Barlow, A., Estep, D. R., Gruber, A. J., Mcdavid, P., Marini, Q., & Parmer, N. (2014). Method for evaluating sustainability of box or product type sample packaging for shipping goods within given shipping vehicle, involves determining whether packages satisfy set of predefined sustainability criteria via processors. US2014100812-A1. United States.
Guides to referencing patents, with format and examples provided:
- Harvard style
- From Microprocessors to Sticky Notes: Patent References and Citations
APA style blog post on referencing patents.
- IEEE style
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) guide on "IEEE Citation Reference".
- How to cite a patent
Referencing patents using different citation styles.
- Citing patents
Iowa State University's guide to referencing patents using different citation styles.
Access a range of tools and support material to assist in your referencing work.
Use this interactive tool to view examples of references.
Covers a range of styles used at the University of Auckland.